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  • hydroxylase
  • Recently we have shown that in vitro binding of the proximal part of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene to the nuclear matrix is correlated with its transcriptional activity. (edu.pl)
  • In this study a 16 kb fragment of the bovine genomic DNA containing the tyrosine hydroxylase gene was investigated for its affinity to the nuclear matrix. (edu.pl)
  • The binding was independent of the tissue-specific tyrosine hydroxylase gene activation. (edu.pl)
  • We conclude that even if the position of the matrix binding region is conserved among the tyrosine hydroxylase genes in mammals, its tissue specificity and/or function is not preserved or is achieved by different mechanisms. (edu.pl)
  • flanking DNA sequences direct cell-specific expression of rat tyrosine hydroxylase. (edu.pl)
  • 1988) Characterization of rat and human tyrosine hydroxylase genes: functional expression of both promoters in neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. (edu.pl)
  • 1989) Isolation and structural characterization of the bovine tyrosine hydroxylase gene. (edu.pl)
  • 1990) Species and regional differences in the expression of cell-type specific elements at the human and rat tyrosine hydroxylase gene loci. (edu.pl)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was measured under optimal and suboptimal assay conditions in hippocampal extracts from young (2 month), mature (12 month), and old (24 month) Fischer 344 male rats 72 h after the infusion of 200 µg of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine or vehicle into the lateral ventricle. (wiley.com)
  • The lesion resulted in a 45-55% decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase activity measured under optimal conditions (pH 6.1, 3.0 m M 6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin) and an ∼35% decrease in the relative concentration of immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase. (wiley.com)
  • When measured under suboptimal conditions (pH 6.6, 0.7 m M 6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin), tyrosine hydroxylase activity in 2- and 12-month-old lesioned animals was twice that measured in vehicle-treated animals. (wiley.com)
  • However, in the old lesioned animals, tyrosine hydroxylase activity measured under suboptimal conditions was not different from that measured in age-matched vehicle-treated animals. (wiley.com)
  • Isoforms of tyrosine hydroxylase were identified on immunoblots after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using enhanced chemiluminescence. (wiley.com)
  • The relative proportion of lower pl isoforms of tyrosine hydroxylase in the 2-month-old lesioned animals was greater than that observed in vehicle-treated controls. (wiley.com)
  • In contrast, no difference was seen in the relative proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase isoforms in the 24-month-old lesioned versus control animals. (wiley.com)
  • phosphatase
  • We have examined here the interaction of the LMW-PTP isoforms with caveolin-1 and its molecular mechanism, together with the consequences for their tyrosine phosphatase activities. (unifi.it)
  • The Src homology region 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) is expressed in a wide variety of immune cells where it plays a largely inhibitory role in cell signaling initiated through a range of cytokine, chemokine, growth factor, and AgR stimuli ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • RTKs
  • Phosphate ATP Tyrosine When a growth factor binds to the extracellular domain of a RTK, its dimerization is triggered with other adjacent RTKs. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • One of the oxygen atoms in O 2 is used to hydroxylate the tyrosine molecule to obtain L -DOPA and the other one is used to hydroxylate the cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine O-sulfate is a stable molecule and is excreted in urine in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydroxylase
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the rate limiting step in this synthesis of catecholamines . (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the reaction in which L -tyrosine is hydroxylated in the meta position to obtain L -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ( L -DOPA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the other aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAHs), tyrosine hydroxylase use the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH 4 ) under normal conditions, although other similar molecules may also work as a cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the four subunits in tyrosine hydroxylase is coordinated with an iron (II) atom presented in the active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since L -DOPA is the precursor for the neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline, tyrosine hydroxylase is therefore found in the cytosol of all cells containing these catecholamines . (wikipedia.org)
  • This initial reaction catalyzed by tyrosine hydroxylase has been shown to be the rate limiting step in the production of catecholamines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase may also be involved in other reactions as well, such as oxidizing L -DOPA to form 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPA or other L -DOPA derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase from rat showing two of its domains , the tetramerization domain (pink) and the catalytic domain (blue). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase is a tetramer of four identical subunits ( homotetramer ). (wikipedia.org)
  • As for the tetramerization and catalytic domains their structure was found with rat tyrosine hydroxylase using X-ray crystallography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase activity is increased in the short term by phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • Fibroblasts - a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen and is involved in wound healing - that have been transformed by the polyomavirus possess higher tyrosine activity in the cellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • The enzymes fall into two broad classes, characterised with respect to substrate specificity: serine/threonine-specific, and tyrosine-specific (the subject of this article). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ser/Thr and Tyr dual-specificity phosphatases are a group of enzymes with both Ser/Thr (EC 3.1.3.16) and tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.48) activity able to remove the serine/threonine or the tyrosine-bound phosphate group from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes that have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • Early research shows that taking tyrosine along with other amino acids and a multivitamin reduces withdrawal symptoms and stress in alcoholics. (webmd.com)
  • sulfation
  • Tyrosine sulfation is catalyzed by tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST). (wikipedia.org)
  • By knock-out of TPST genes in mice, it may be observed that tyrosine sulfation has effects on the growth of the mice, such as body weight, fecundity, and postnatal viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine O-sulfation is an irreversible process in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal transdu
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for tyrosine kinase research that enable analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • An example of a vital signal transduction pathway involves the tyrosine kinase receptor, c-met, which is required for the survival and proliferation of migrating myoblasts during myogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • transaminase
  • para-hydroxyphenylalanine) begins with an α-ketoglutarate dependent transamination through the tyrosine transaminase to para-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a similar mechanism of aspartate transaminase, the lysine that forms the initial imine to PLP later acts as the base that attacks the tyrosine in transimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine aminotransferase: a transaminase among others? (wikipedia.org)
  • 1993
  • HM71224 for autoimmune diseases, under development by Hanmi Pharmaceutical and Lilly as of 2015 Bruton's tyrosine kinase was discovered in 1993 and is named for Ogden Bruton, who first described XLA in 1952. (wikipedia.org)