• either sex
  • The native English term man can refer to the species generally (a synonym for humanity) as well as to human males, or individuals of either sex (though this latter form is less common in contemporary English). (wikipedia.org)
  • Children of either sex have an even chance of receiving either of their mother's two X chromosomes, one of which contains the defective gene in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • These disorders manifest in and are passed on by either sex with equal frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • complement
  • Some of the earliest genetic testing for any species was the examination of the chromosomes to determine the presence of the normal and complete genomic complement. (vin.com)
  • It is associated typically with an XXY chromosome complement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our methods and results clarify the shifts in human cerebellar organization that accompany interwoven variations in sex, sex chromosome complement, and brain size. (jneurosci.org)
  • We leverage a rare neuroimaging dataset to deconvolve the interwoven effects of sex, sex chromosome complement, and brain size on human cerebellar organization. (jneurosci.org)
  • We reveal topographically variegated scaling relationships between regional cerebellar volume and brain size in humans, which (1) are distinct from those observed in phylogeny, (2) invalidate a traditional neuroimaging method for brain volume correction, and (3) allow more valid and accurate resolution of which cerebellar subcomponents are sensitive to sex and sex chromosome complement. (jneurosci.org)
  • mitosis
  • citation needed] The cause of this phenomenon is typically, but not always, an event in mitosis during early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compaction of the duplicated chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis results in the classic four-arm structure (pictured to the right). (medicalxpress.com)
  • locus
  • Even though the gene DMRT1 is used by birds as their sex locus, species who have XY chromosomes also rely upon DMRT1, contained on chromosome 9, for sexual differentiation at some point in their formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • father's
  • However, all male offspring will be unaffected, since they receive their father's Y chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have two versions of each chromosome, one contributed by the mother's ovum, and the other by the father's sperm, known as gametes, described as haploid, and created through meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their children would inherit the disorder as follows: Of their daughters: 100% will have the disorder, since all of the daughters will receive a copy of their father's X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetuses
  • It has long been believed that the female form was the default template for the mammalian fetuses of both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • In this study, researchers will use MRI to assess brain anatomy and function in X and Y chromosome variation, healthy volunteers, and patients with a variety of childhood onset psychiatric disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As a result, females tend to show higher prevalence of X-linked dominant disorders because they have more of a chance to inherit a faulty X chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorder
  • This form of thrombocytopenia is inherited on X chromosome, thus individuals with this disorder are typically males. (wikipedia.org)
  • Females can be carriers for this disorder, which means that they have one normal X chromosome and one X chromosome with the WAS gene mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment for individuals with X-linked thrombocytopenia is typically focused on managing symptoms of the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • A male bodily disorder caused by one or more additional X (sex) chromosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This means the defective gene responsible for the disorder (PHEX) is located on the X chromosome, and only one copy of the defective gene is sufficient to cause the disorder when inherited from a parent who has the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • In medicine, X-linked dominant inheritance indicates that a gene responsible for a genetic disorder is located on the X chromosome, and only one copy of the allele is sufficient to cause the disorder when inherited from a parent who has the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Although several of these domains are sex biased, our fundamental understanding of cerebellar sex differences-including their spatial distribution, potential biological determinants, and independence from brain volume variation-lags far behind that for the cerebrum. (jneurosci.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cerebellar systems are implicated in diverse domains of sex-biased behavior and pathology, but we lack a basic understanding of how sex differences in the human cerebellum are distributed and determined. (jneurosci.org)
  • organism
  • Bilateral gynandromorphy arises very early in development, typically when the organism has between 8 and 64 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the organism contains only a few cells, one of the dividing cells does not split its sex chromosomes typically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since X and XYY dictate different sexes, the organism has tissue that is female and tissue that is male. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other cases, sex is determined by environmental variables (such as temperature) or social variables (e.g. the size of an organism relative to other members of its population). (wikipedia.org)
  • virilization
  • He further argued that Völling did not possess a "naturally female body", but one subjected to virilization, and "profoundly atrophied" sex organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • female
  • In addition, a female could be affected if she were the offspring of an affected male and a carrier female and inherited a deletion or mutation of the STS gene on both X chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Males with XLI will transmit the X chromosome harboring the STS deletion or mutation to each of his female offspring, who will therefore be an obligate carrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • This leads to one of the two cells having sex chromosomes that cause male development and the other cell having chromosomes that cause female development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Völling was born in 1959 with XX sex chromosomes, typically associated with being female, and likely also with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The court ruled that "the Defendant illegally, in a deliberate and culpable manner, injured the Plaintiff's health by removing his female sex organs" without full consent about the nature, content and extent of the surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Offspring have two sex chromosomes: an offspring with two X chromosomes will develop female characteristics, and an offspring with an X and a Y chromosome will develop male characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • John C. Avise describes the genetics, ecology, phylogeny, and natural history of hermaphroditic plants, fish, and invertebrate animals and details organisms that either reproduce simultaneously as male and female or switch routinely between one sex and the other. (scribd.com)
  • In these and many other hermaphroditic plant and animal species, each dual-sex individual can reproduce both as a male and as a female during its lifetime. (scribd.com)
  • With regard to gender, a woman may also be a person whose sex assignment does not align with their gender identity, or those who have sexual characteristics that do not fit typical notions of male or female (intersex). (wikipedia.org)
  • The symbol for the planet and goddess Venus or Aphrodite in Greek is the sign also used in biology for the female sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also some species that are only one sex due to parthenogenesis, the act of a female reproducing without fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • The doctor had no good reason for failing to provide full diagnostic information, in particular as the diagnostic data showed that Völling did not possess mixed sex characteristics, with the potential to maintain one present sex, but actually involved the complete removal of her only present sex organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The presence of TRAYC in other species of the Elisanthe section suggests that this repeat had spread after the sex chromosomes evolved but before speciation within this section. (ibp.cz)
  • Genetic testing has been available in the domestic cat since the 1960s, but as like other species, over the past 50 years, the level of resolution has improved from the chromosome level to the sequence level. (vin.com)
  • testosterone
  • Hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism is a condition in which the function of the testes in males is reduced and can result in low levels of sex steroids produced like testosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the SRY gene is activated, cells create testosterone and anti-müllerian hormone which typically ensures the development of a single, male reproductive system. (wikipedia.org)