• stem
  • The new discovery suggests a personalized treatment approach to diabetes may be on the horizon - one that relies on the patients' own stem cells to manufacture new cells that make insulin. (vetscite.org)
  • Millman, whose laboratory is in the Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research, began his research while working in the laboratory of Douglas A. Melton, PhD, Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and a co-director of Harvard's Stem Cell Institute. (vetscite.org)
  • There, Millman had used similar techniques to make beta cells from stem cells derived from people who did not have diabetes. (vetscite.org)
  • Some scientists thought that because the tissue would be coming from diabetes patients, there might be defects to prevent us from helping the stem cells differentiate into beta cells. (vetscite.org)
  • Millman said more research is needed to make sure that the beta cells made from patient-derived stem cells don't cause tumors to develop - a problem that has surfaced in some stem cell research - but there has been no evidence of tumors in the mouse studies, even up to a year after the cells were implanted. (vetscite.org)
  • He said the stem cell-derived beta cells could be ready for human research in three to five years. (vetscite.org)
  • Small trials using younger donors and elderly recipients hint that mesenchymal stem cell transfers might reduce frailty. (the-scientist.com)
  • The stem cells -- easy to harvest from the fluid left over from amniocentesis tests given to many pregnant women -- were used to create bone, heart muscle, blood vessels, fat, and nerve and liver tissues, the study said. (latimes.com)
  • So far, we've been successful with every cell type we've attempted to produce from these stem cells," said study senior author Anthony Atala, director of the Institute for Regenerative Medicine at Wake Forest University School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, N.C. The report was published online by the journal Nature Biotechnology. (latimes.com)
  • California's Proposition 71, approved in 2004, was designed to provide $3 billion for stem cell research but has met a vigorous legal challenge from opponents of the research. (latimes.com)
  • Amniotic stem cell research ducks the controversy because no embryos are destroyed. (latimes.com)
  • But even if amniotic stem cells turn out to be less flexible, they still might be an important tool in the nascent field of regenerative medicine. (latimes.com)
  • It would be the first human clinical trial involving amniotic stem cells, he said. (latimes.com)
  • Swiss scientists Dorthe Schmidt and Simon Hoerstrup of University Hospital Zurich have used amniotic stem cells to grow heart valves. (latimes.com)
  • Adult stem cells are narrowly focused on replenishing specific types of tissue that wear out over a lifetime, such as skin, hair and blood. (latimes.com)
  • Amniotic-fluid stem cells, which are sloughed off by the fetus, are "a different kind of a stem cell," Atala said. (latimes.com)
  • Atala and his colleagues set out to determine just how plentiful and flexible the stem cells might be. (latimes.com)
  • The stem cells are those approved for use by President George W. Bush in 2001. (wordpress.com)
  • In December, the Vatican issued a 32-page document, "Dignitatis Personae" ("The Dignity of a Person") in which it warned of of the ethical dilemmas posed by new developments in stem cell research. (wordpress.com)
  • At least 351 companies across the United States are marketing unapproved stem cell procedures at 570 individual clinics. (vetscite.org)
  • Likewise, young scientists excited about careers in stem cell research are concerned about going into this field, given the legal uncertainty. (mednews.com)
  • They are at the heart of the NIH mission, and they are the ones who stand to benefit the most, or lose the most, by the stem cell policies we are discussing today. (mednews.com)
  • To be sure, scientists are also interested in other types of stem cells. (mednews.com)
  • Adult stem cells are found in various organs and tissues throughout the body. (mednews.com)
  • These cells, also sometimes referred to as multipotent or somatic stem cells, can develop into a limited number of specific cell types, depending upon the organ or tissue from which they are derived. (mednews.com)
  • However, adult stem cells are less than ideal for many types of research and therapy because they do not divide indefinitely in culture, and they produce only a limited number of cells and cell types. (mednews.com)
  • But the advent of stem cell transplantation led to the discovery by us and others that stem cells can fuse with somatic cells in vivo and that fusion facilitates stem cell differentiation 5-7 . (jove.com)
  • To demonstrate the approach, mice ubiquitously expressing Cre recombinase served as recipients of stem cells transfected with a construct to express luciferase downstream of a floxed stop codon. (jove.com)
  • But it would also criminalize a biomedical research procedure called somatic cell nuclear transfer that some geneticists and doctors believe holds promise as a way to produce stem cells for tissue repair and therapy. (natcath.org)
  • It is a much easier method than using today s existing stem cell lines or harvesting adult stem cells, which can be a painful and invasive procedure. (natcath.org)
  • To many, the procedure skirts ethical and moral difficulties in creating new life from fertilizing an egg to harvest stem cells. (natcath.org)
  • With the somatic, or adult cell nucleus, the egg begins to develop into a blastocyst, essentially a sphere containing a cluster of unspecialized stem cells. (natcath.org)
  • Scientists can then extract these stem cells from the growing blastocyst and grow them in vitro, in other words, in an artificial environment. (natcath.org)
  • Since they contain the donor s own DNA, stem cells generated in somatic cell nuclear transfer theoretically can be used to repair damaged or defective organ tissue in the donor s body without rejection or immune reactions related to organ transplant or injection from existing stem cell lines. (natcath.org)
  • Signaling
  • In addition, PERK signaling has been found to be an important factor in determining growth and angiogenesis of specific types of tumors, and was attributed to PERK-dependent regulation of the hypoxic stress response. (jove.com)
  • Pray to God for help or go after the pathogen that alters Rho G proteins that are the signaling cascade for insulin production, skin growth, stomach healing, endocrine functions. (freerepublic.com)
  • proteins
  • Interactions between cell-surface proteins help coordinate the function of neighboring cells. (jove.com)
  • It is becoming increasingly clear that interactions between transmembrane proteins on the surfaces of adjacent beta cells are important determinants of beta-cell function. (jove.com)
  • These approaches also alter levels of the intracellular domains of the targeted proteins and may prevent effects due to interactions between proteins within the same cell membrane to be distinguished from the effects of transcellular interactions. (jove.com)
  • It is based on coculture models developed by neurobiologists, who found that exposure of cultured neurons to specific neuronal proteins expressed on HEK293 (or COS) cell layers identified proteins important for driving synapse formation. (jove.com)
  • The HC11 cells differentiate and synthesize milk proteins in response to treatment with lactogenic hormones. (jove.com)
  • Nearly
  • Nearly all of the development is still to come, so those cells must be extremely flexible. (latimes.com)
  • First, these cells are pluripotent, which means that they have the potential to become nearly every one of the different types of cells in the human body. (mednews.com)
  • mice
  • In mice, adult cone cell outer segments and their visual functions deteriorate if two microRNAs are not present. (the-scientist.com)
  • A study publishing June 16 in Cell Reports now describes a new genetic mutation as an additional cause of ataxia in humans and mice. (vetscite.org)
  • Studying cells from mice, the research team found that the gatekeeper enzyme - known as IRE1 - beefed up the membrane of a cellular structure called the endoplasmic reticulum, preventing damaging molecules from spilling into other parts of the cell. (healthcanal.com)
  • tissue
  • Since these experiments have proven it's possible to make beta cells from the tissue of patients with type 1 diabetes, it's likely the technique also would work in patients with other forms of the disease - including type 2 diabetes, neonatal diabetes and Wolfram syndrome. (vetscite.org)
  • Dr. Dario Fauza, coordinator of the surgical research laboratories at Children's Hospital Boston, has used the cells to grow tissue to repair defective diaphragms and tracheas in sheep. (latimes.com)
  • These invasive cells move into surrounding tissue and eventually to bl. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These invasive cells move into surrounding tissue and eventually to blood vessels, which provide the cancer cells with a means of moving to other areas of the body. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We have micro-needles filled with growth factors and tissue that we insert into a tumor on an anesthetized mouse. (bio-medicine.org)
  • immune
  • It is approved not just as a TB vaccine, but also as a bladder cancer treatment that works by prompting an immune response to tumors. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • In previous mouse studies and a phase 1 trial in people, Faustman's team showed that BCG raises levels of an immune system modulator, tumor necrosis factor. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The second step of the therapy addressed the immune cells?inability to present self-peptides, molecules that are required to halt the development of autoimmune diseases. (scientificamerican.com)
  • gene
  • Concentrating on a gene known as ALK the scientists used a small-mole. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Concentrating on a gene known as ALK, the scientists used a small-molecule inhibitor a technique common to many drugs to block abnormalities that apparently cause neuroblastomas. (bio-medicine.org)
  • When cells expressing this gene fuse with cells expressing the Cre recombinase protein, the LoxP sites are cleaved and the stop signal is excised allowing transcription of luciferase. (jove.com)
  • tissues
  • Hypoxia is defined as the reduction or lack of oxygen in organs, tissues, or cells. (jove.com)
  • Hypoxia can be physiologic or pathologic such as in solid cancers 1-3 , rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis etc… Each tissues and cells have a different ability to adapt to this new condition. (jove.com)
  • Thus, cell fusion is a regulated process capable of promoting cell survival and differentiation and thus could be of central importance for development, repair of tissues and even the pathogenesis of disease. (jove.com)
  • Cancer Re
  • This latest study published in the journal Molecular Cell and funded by the Wellcome Trust, Cancer Research UK and the Association of International Cancer Research (AICR) is the first to identify the enzyme that can rid cells of WT1. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Cancer Research UK scientists have used imaging techniques as a new way to identify patients who could benefit from certain breast cancer treatments, according to a study published in Oncotarget. (vetscite.org)
  • genetic
  • With samples they had collected from families for the past 15 years, as well as additional data from the COG, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia scientists traced the genetic roots of many neuroblastomas to ALK mutations findings that open the door to genetic screenings for the disease as well as possible therapies. (bio-medicine.org)
  • donor
  • That nucleus is then replaced with the nucleus from a donor s skin, liver, brain or any other cell in the body. (natcath.org)
  • occurs
  • A cell-death cascade was set off by a process that occurs when harmful molecules spill from one part of the cell into other areas where they don't belong. (healthcanal.com)
  • organs
  • The ability of two or more cells of the same type to fuse has been utilized in metazoans throughout evolution to form many complex organs, including skeletal muscle, bone and placenta. (jove.com)
  • suggests
  • A new study of the University of Cambridge anatomy collection suggests that the bodies of foetuses and babies were a "prized source of knowledge" by British scientists of the 18th and 19th centuries, and were dissected more commonly than previously thought and quite differently to adult cadavers. (vetscite.org)
  • differentiation
  • A phenotypic measure commonly used to determine the degree of lactogenic differentiation in mouse mammary epithelial cell cultures is the formation of dome shaped cell structures referred to as mammospheres 1 . (jove.com)
  • The HC11 cell line has been employed as a model system for the study of regulation of mammary lactogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo 2 . (jove.com)
  • types
  • As with all types of organ donation, the need for islet beta cells for people with type 1 diabetes greatly exceeds their availability. (vetscite.org)
  • We believe the enzyme we identified may provide us with a target to protect many types of cells from a death cascade that leads to those different, seemingly unrelated disorders. (healthcanal.com)
  • More recent studies demonstrate fusion of cells of different types can direct cell fate. (jove.com)
  • Research
  • Due to its high toxicity to beta cells, in scientific research, streptozotocin has also been long used for inducing insulitis and diabetes on experimental animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • It's clear from our experiments that this enzyme can keep the membrane in the cell from becoming permeable and leaking," Urano said. (healthcanal.com)
  • Kanekura K, Ma X, Murphy JT, Zhu LJ, Diwan A, Urano F. IRE1 prevents endoplasmic reticulum membrane permeabiliation and cell death under pathological conditions. (healthcanal.com)
  • drugs
  • Then it would be possible to test the effects of diabetes drugs on the beta cells of patients with various forms of the disease. (vetscite.org)
  • That's because tumor cells with Menainv are so sensitive to EGF that even a small amount of EGF signal not blocked by the drugs may be enough to stimulate EGF receptors and promote tumor cell migration and metastasis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Furthermore, they found some of the ALK mutations were sensitive to a tiny organic molecule known as TAE684, a discovery that may be useful in efforts to create drugs to staunch cancer growth. (bio-medicine.org)
  • treatments
  • Now, scientists working to find treatments for Wolfram syndrome have identified a gatekeeper that prevents those harmful molecules from spilling and triggering cell death. (healthcanal.com)
  • ability
  • Tregs have the ability to halt this aberrant behavior, but effective methods for modulating their activity have yet to be found. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • reveal
  • Scientists reveal the neural underpinnings-and muscles tightly linked with-the involuntary flexing of the pelvic floor, which comprises muscles that help us delay urination. (the-scientist.com)
  • studies
  • Elucidation of the roles of particular transcellular interactions by knockdown, knockout or overexpression studies in cultured beta cells or in vivo necessitates direct perturbation of mRNA and protein expression, potentially affecting beta-cell health and/or function in ways that could confound analyses of the effects of specific interactions. (jove.com)
  • Contemporary studies demonstrate fusion of cells of the same type confers enhanced function. (jove.com)
  • form
  • People with this form of diabetes can't make their own insulin and require regular insulin injections to control their blood sugar. (vetscite.org)
  • For example, when the trophoblast cells of the placenta fuse to form the syncytiotrophoblast, the syncytiotrophoblast is better able to transport nutrients and hormones across the maternal-fetal barrier than unfused trophoblasts 1-4 . (jove.com)
  • vivo
  • Unlike existing methods which utilize the Cre/ LoxP system 16, 17 , we have incorporated a "living" detection signal and thereby afford for the first time the opportunity to track the kinetics of cell fusion in vivo . (jove.com)
  • Type
  • If damaged cells are replaceable, type 1 diabetics wouldn't need insulin shots. (vetscite.org)
  • There had been questions about whether we could make these cells from people with type 1 diabetes," Millman explained. (vetscite.org)
  • The type of cell stress involved in Wolfram syndrome, as well as more common forms of diabetes, can contribute to multiple diseases," said principal investigator Fumihiko Urano, MD, PhD, the Samuel E. Schechter Professor of Medicine. (healthcanal.com)
  • less
  • And as WT1 expression is low in healthy adults, oncogenic expression of WT1 has been found to be tumour specific so targeting WT1 will be less damaging to the patient's general health. (bio-medicine.org)
  • study
  • The team plans to study HtrA2 further, to find out how it is inactivated in cancer cells (allowing WT1 to proliferate) and what other targets HtrA2 has. (bio-medicine.org)
  • If everything that people think about them turns out to be true, they'll be a powerful source for therapeutic cells," said Alan Russell, director of the McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh, who wasn't involved in the study. (latimes.com)
  • Young women who received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine through a school-based program had fewer cervical cell anomalies when screened for cervical cancer, found a new study in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). (vetscite.org)
  • The study was published in the Dec. 8 issue of Developmental Cell . (bio-medicine.org)
  • Limiting the study of cell fusion, is lack of appropriate technology to 1) accurately identify fusion products and to 2) track fusion products over time. (jove.com)
  • organ
  • In fact, Drs. E. Donnall Thomas and Joseph Murray were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1990, "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease. (mednews.com)
  • patients
  • Still today, patients in several clinical trials have been given beta cell transplants with some success. (vetscite.org)
  • levels
  • Dr Jorg Hartkamp and Dr Stefan Roberts have found that the protease HtrA2 can "clean" cells of the oncogene WT1, which is found at high levels in many leukaemias and solid cancers such as breast and lung cancer. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Cell death can result if there are inadequate levels of the enzyme that keeps potentially harmful molecules in the proper place. (healthcanal.com)
  • This explains its relative toxicity to beta cells, since these cells have relatively high levels of GLUT2. (wikipedia.org)