• antigens
  • Lastly, biologic effects include the viruses' ability to affect the activity of antigens and immunologlobulins in the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because foreign virus antigens are expressed in these tumors, persons who are immunosuppressed such as AIDS or transplant patients are at higher risk for these types of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three genes in the early region express the large, middle, and small tumor antigens (LT, MT, ST) and are sufficient for inducing tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of a microRNA from a region overlapping one of the LT exons has also been identified and is thought to be involved in downregulating expression of the tumor antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the danger model, the immune surveillance system fails to detect tumor antigens because transformed cells do not send any danger signals which could activate dendritic cells and initiate an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunological
  • By creating oncolytic viruses that can (1) kill tumor cells directly through lysis, (2) activate the immune system by delivering genes that encode immunostimulants and by overcoming tumor cell-induced immunological tolerance, and (3) reduce tumor nutrient supply through the destruction of blood vessels, Jennerex aimed to create a novel approach to treating and possibly curing cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virology
  • Many of his graduate students and postdoctoral fellows have gone on to successful research careers, making significant contributions to the fields of virology, molecular virology, and tumor biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • sarcoma
  • From 1959 to 1962 he was Damon Runyon Cancer Research Fellow in the laboratory of Harry Rubin at the University of California in Berkeley and started work on Rous sarcoma virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • His work on mutants of the Rous sarcoma virus enabled Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus to isolate DNA sequences that represent the src oncogene and to demonstrate the cellular origin of oncogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viruses are tumorigenic when they infect a cell and persist as circular episomes or plasmids, replicating separately from host cell DNA (Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1908: Vilhelm Ellerman and Olaf Bang, University of Copenhagen, first demonstrated that avian sarcoma leukosis virus could be transmitted after cell-free filtration to new chickens, causing leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1910: Peyton Rous at Rockefeller extended Bang and Ellerman's experiments to show filtrable cell-free transmission of a solid tumor sarcoma to chickens (now known as Rous sarcoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite having no research funding, Moore and Chang used a new molecular biology technique, representational difference analysis, to search for a virus causing Kaposi's sarcoma, the most common malignancy among AIDS patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1994, they discovered a new human herpesvirus, KSHV, in a KS tumor and along with several collaborators showed that it was the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Encodes
  • however, it has recently been established, that MMTV encodes an extra self-regulatory mRNA export protein, Rem, with resemblance to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV Rev protein, and is therefore the first complex murine retrovirus to be documented. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients with HIV infection
  • In Phase II, to determine trends in efficacy of isotretinoin alone or in combination with IFN alfa-2a as chemoprevention (preventing progression or recurrence) of anal intraepithelial neoplasia ( AIN ) / squamous intraepithelial lesions ( SIL ) in patients with HIV infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this context, HPV-associated anogenital malignancies occur with high frequency in patients with HIV-infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • mechanisms
  • These two mechanisms differ in their biology and epidemiology: direct tumor viruses must have at least one virus copy in every tumor cell expressing at least one protein or RNA that is causing the cell to become cancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses lacking a viral envelope often have complex mechanisms for entry into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccine
  • A quadrivalent human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine called Gardasil had recently (at start of study) been developed and approved by the FDA for the prevention of cervical HPV infection and cervical cancer, which is associated with infection from this virus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is unknown whether the same vaccine could also be of benefit in treating anogenital warts, which are caused by the same virus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Vaccination Period for the Base Study encompassed Day 1 through Month 7, during which time subjects in Group 1 received a 20/40/40/20 formulation of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) (Types 6, 11, 16, 18) L1 Virus-Like Particle (VLP) vaccine at Day 1, Month 2, and Month 6. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 20/40/40/20 formulation of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) (Types 6, 11, 16, 18) L1 Virus-Like Particle (VLP) vaccine at Day 1, Month 2, and Month 6. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The most visible example of this role is the HPV vaccine, which was developed based on and incorporating research done using the virus as a model. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Jae U. Jung is an expert in the molecular biology of herpes viruses and their gene products as they relate to cell biology, biochemistry and immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic
  • This type of infection usually causes few obvious changes within the cell but can lead to long chronic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three types of persistent infections, latent, chronic and slow, in which the virus stays inside the host cell for prolonged periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indirect viral oncogenicity involves chronic nonspecific inflammation occurring over decades of infection, as is the case for HCV-induced liver cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic indirect tumor viruses, on the other hand, can be lost (at least theoretically) from a mature tumor that has accumulated sufficient mutations and growth conditions (hyperplasia) from the chronic inflammation of viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver cancer
  • Upon comparison of intravenous (i.v.) delivery of JX-594 (109 PFU) to intratumoral (i.t.) injection in immunocompetent liver cancer model in rabbits over 7 weeks, it was found that the i.t. treatment reduced the average primary tumor volume from 425 cm3 in control animals to 20 cm3 in i.t.-treated animals, and to 35 cm3 in the i.v. treatment group. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Several mouse strains carry the virus endogenously, but it is also transmitted vertically via milk from mother to pup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic susceptibility to MPyV infection among mice varies significantly, and not all MPyV strains are oncogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particle
  • The functions of VP2 and VP3 are less well understood, but at least VP2 has been reported to be exposed upon endocytosis of the viral particle and may be involved in releasing the virus from the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not known whether entry into the cytosol is obligatory for MPyV infection or whether the particle could enter the cell nucleus directly from the ER. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even a single viral particle entering the nucleus can be sufficient for infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondly the virus particle (without the outer membrane) fuses with the cellular membrane to release the core into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assembly of the virus particle occurs in five stages of maturation that lead to the final exocytosis of the new enveloped virion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assembly of the virus particle occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and is a complex process that is currently being researched to understand each stage in more depth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Warts
  • Many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive children are afflicted with diffuse flat warts that have been recalcitrant to multiple treatments.The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of 15% glycolic acid lotion (NeoStrata) for treatment of flat warts in HIV-positive children in Botswana. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • He separated the virus from horny warts on cottontail rabbits, and made one of the first mammaliam tumor virus discoveries. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • They are more likely to be diagnosed with hormone-receptor positive tumors, with about six out of seven cases being estrogen-receptor positive. (wikipedia.org)
  • After binding to the receptor, the virus enters the cell where it uncoats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decoy receptor 2 (DCR2), also known as TRAIL receptor 4 (TRAILR4) and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10D (TNFRSF10D), is a human cell surface receptor of the TNF-receptor superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • detect
  • They subsequently sequenced KSHV, identified oncogenes encoded by the virus, demonstrated transmission during transplantation and developed diagnostic tests to detect infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • incidence
  • The main objective is to assess the prevalence, incidence, and clearance rate of HPV cervical infection and associated cervical lesion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate the prevalence, the incidence, the persistence rate and the clearance rate of HPV cervical infection, of genotypes involved and of multiple infections. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The data concerning the incidence of oral HPV-infection in HIV-positive men, especially in the era of highly antiretroviral therapy, are conflicting. (clinicaltrials.gov)