• serum
  • FDA is also announcing that it has issued an order in the form of a letter to Centocar, Inc., reclassifying serum tumor markers into class II. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Tumor markers can be determined in serum or rarely in urine or other body fluids, often by immunoassay but other techniques such as enzyme activity determination are sometimes used. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as a tumor marker in clinical tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Serum from individuals with colorectal carcinoma often has higher levels of CEA than healthy individuals (above approximately 2.5 µg/L). CEA measurement is mainly used as a tumor marker to monitor colorectal carcinoma treatment, to identify recurrences after surgical resection, for staging or to localize cancer spread through measurement of biological fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity may be a marker for inflammation because of its association with elevated levels of CRP. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • CALYM covers all stages of lymphoma research and development (R&D), from fundamental and preclinical research (including new biological targets) to clinical research (up to international phase III registration trials) and also carries out biological studies associated with clinical trials: diagnostics, genetics, immunomonitoring, and pharmacogenomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The aim of this study was to assess the expression of cytokeratins in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, comparing to cytokeratin expression in normal salivary glands, in order to establish a possible correlation between tumor cells immunostaining and mucoepidermoid carcinoma histogenesis and differentiation. (mendeley.com)
  • Quantification of NG2 expression in 74 GBM biopsies from newly diagnosed and untreated patients revealed that 50% express high NG2 levels on tumour cells and associated vessels, being associated with significantly shorter survival. (biomedsearch.com)
  • NG2 was frequently co-expressed with nestin and vimentin but rarely with CD133 and the NG2 positive tumour cells harboured genetic aberrations typical for GBM. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The tumor cells are negative for E-cadherin, but positive for CD138 expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • D2-40: an additional marker for myoepithelial cells of breast and the precaution in interpreting tum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CEA is synthesized by epithelial and tumor cells. (springer.com)
  • Tumor markers can be produced directly by the tumor or by non-tumor cells as a response to the presence of a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • One way that MUC16 helps the growth of tumors is by suppressing the response of natural killer cells, thereby protecting cancer cells from the immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further evidence that MUC16 can protect tumor cells from the immune system is the discovery that the heavily glycosylated tandem repeat domain of MUC16 can bind to galectin-1 (an immunosuppressive protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • MUC16 is also thought to participate in cell-to-cell interactions that enable the metastasis of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since mesothelin is also expressed by tumor cells, MUC16 and mesothelial interactions may aid in the gathering of other tumor cells to the location of a metastasis, thus increasing the size of the metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments reintroducing SIM2s in human breast cancer cells allowed for the tumor suppressive characteristics to be observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • PKM2 is expressed in some differentiated tissues, such as lung, fat tissue, retina, and pancreatic islets, as well as in all cells with a high rate of nucleic acid synthesis, such as normal proliferating cells, embryonic cells, and especially tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When PKM2 is mainly in the less active dimeric form, which is the case in tumor cells, all glycolytic intermediates above pyruvate kinase accumulate and are channelled into synthetic processes, which branch off from glycolytic intermediates such as nucleic acid-, phospholipid-, and amino acid synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic acids, phospholipids, and amino acids are important cell building-blocks, which are greatly needed by highly proliferating cells, such as tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In tumor cells, PKM2 is mainly in the dimeric form and has, therefore, been termed Tumor M2-PK. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dimerization of PKM2 in tumor cells is induced by direct interaction of PKM2 with different oncoproteins (pp60v-src, HPV-16 E7, and A-Raf). (wikipedia.org)
  • metastatic
  • Advances in diagnostic techniques, genomics, and proteomics enable a window into subcellular mechanisms driving hyperproliferation, metastatic capabilities, and tumor angiogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • renal
  • Tumour-like smooth muscle proliferations were seen surrounding muscular arteries (eight), occasionally admixed with fat extending from the renal sinus mimicking angiomyolipoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • immunological
  • reclassification of tumor-associated antigen immunological test system--FDA. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that it is codifying the reclassification of tumor-associated antigen immunological test systems intended as an aid in monitoring patients for disease progression or response to therapy or for the detection of recurrent or residual disease from class III (premarket approval) to class II (special controls). (biomedsearch.com)
  • tumorigenesis
  • MUC16 (CA-125) has been shown to play a role in advancing tumorigenesis and tumor proliferation by several different mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • alkaline phosphatase
  • This distinction is indicated by the markers of inflammations specifically from C-reactive protein (CRP) with elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isoenzymes, which are certain forms of alkaline phosphatase generated by these tumors, enlarges the total volume of alkaline phosphatase levels on experiential studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staging
  • Although mammography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging scans, and tumor marker assays help in the staging and treatment of the cancer, they are usually not definitive diagnostic tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staging: some tumor markers are included in the staging procedures for some tumor localizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear
  • Nuclear expression of GATA-3 in breast cancer is considered a marker of luminal cancer in ER+ cancer and luminal androgen responsive cancer in ER-/AR+ tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • It has been researched that SIM2s acts in mammary gland development and has tumor suppressive characteristics specifically in breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • With this assay and mutation assays for the FGFR3 and PIK3CA oncogenes, we screened primary bladder tumors of 257 patients and 184 recurrences from 54 patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Of primary tumors 64% were mutant for FGFR3, 11% for RAS, 24% for PIK3CA, and 26% for p53. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In patients presenting with NMI-BC grade 3 and MI-BC, 33 and 36% of the primary tumors were mutant. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In patients with low-grade NMI-BC, 88% of the primary tumors carried a mutation and 88% of the recurrences were mutant. (biomedsearch.com)
  • patients
  • Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumour, where patients respond poorly to radiotherapy and exhibit dismal survival outcomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Since the progenitor marker neuron-glial-2 (NG2) has been shown to regulate several aspects of GBM progression in experimental systems, we hypothesised that its expression would influence the survival of GBM patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Circulating neuroendocrine markers in patients with prostate carcinoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • cell
  • MUC16 and mesothelin interactions are thought to provide the first step in tumor cell invasion of the peritoneum. (wikipedia.org)
  • EMT suppression allows for E-cadherin to remain and for the cell to not undergo pathological EMT associated with tumor formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its expression profile, it has been used as a growth marker and targeted for studies in tumor cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • M-CSF affects macrophages and monocytes in several ways, including stimulating increased phagocytic and chemotactic activity, and increased tumour cell cytotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • There are many different tumor markers, each indicative of a particular disease process, and they are used in oncology to help detect the presence of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • GATA-3 was shown to be required for the luminal A type of breast cancer, intertwined in pathways with ERα but also androgen receptor signaling in ER-/AR+ tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN). (curehunter.com)
  • PKM2 is expressed in most human tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • Expression of the progenitor marker NG2/CSPG4 predicts poor survival and resistance to ionising radiation in glioblastoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Alternatively, suppressing the expression of this gene has been shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • abundant
  • As the most abundant biological source is women who are presently pregnant, some organizations collect urine from pregnant women to extract hCG for use in fertility treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • The specific function of this protein has not been determined but it has been proposed as a marker of lung injury. (wikipedia.org)