• deuterium
  • Tritium was first predicted in the late 1920s by Walter Russell, using his "spiral" periodic table , then produced in 1934 from deuterium , another isotope of hydrogen , by Ernest Rutherford , working with Mark Oliphant and Paul Harteck. (factbites.com)
  • The tritium is produced by spallation reactions with oxygen , nitrogen and carbon nuclei present in the water systems and to a much lesser degree by radiative capture of neutrons by the deuterium nuclei in water . (factbites.com)
  • In comparison, the fusion of deuterium with tritium releases about 17.6 MeV of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can, in fact, be used as a component of fusion fuel, mixed with liquid deuterium , but this is made complicated by the fact that tritium decays too fast for long-term storage. (wikia.com)
  • The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) was a facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory dedicated to the development and demonstration of technologies required for fusion-relevant Deuterium-Tritium processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The facility is expected to finish its construction phase in 2021 and will start commissioning the reactor that same year and initiate plasma experiments in 2025 with full deuterium-tritium fusion experiments starting in 2035. (wikipedia.org)
  • Firstly, its hydrogen isotope fuels are relatively abundant - one of the necessary isotopes, deuterium, can be extracted from seawater, while the other fuel, tritium, would be bred from a lithium blanket using neutrons produced in the fusion reaction itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • ITER is designed to produce approximately 500 MW of fusion power sustained for up to 1,000 seconds (compared to JET's peak of 16 MW for less than a second) by the fusion of about 0.5 g of deuterium/tritium mixture in its approximately 840 m3 reactor chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactor
  • however, this reaction has a much smaller cross section and is only a useful tritium source for a reactor with a very high neutron flux. (factbites.com)
  • Given the particular properties and non-cancer risks of tritium (when it is organically bound or in the form of tritiated water), I am of the opinion that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has not been vigilant enough in trying make reactor operators reduce their tritium discharges. (ieer.org)
  • nuclear weapons
  • Tritium is also produced during nuclear weapons explosions, as a byproduct in reactors producing electricity, and in special production reactors , where the isotope lithium-6 is bombarded to produce tritium . (factbites.com)
  • After the war ended, Novick returned to Chicago, where he worked with Herbert L. Anderson at the Manhattan Project's Argonne National Laboratory, studying the properties of tritium, an important component in nuclear weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • proton
  • Tritium is produced in accelerator cooling water systems which are subjected to large proton or neutron fluxes such as those of the meson production targets of the TRIUMF 500 MeV facility. (factbites.com)
  • Lithium
  • Tritium is produced in nuclear reactors by neutron activation of lithium-6 . (wikipedia.org)
  • For applications in proposed fusion energy reactors, such as ITER , pebbles consisting of lithium bearing ceramics including Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 SiO 4 , are being developed for tritium breeding within a helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB), also known as a breeder blanket. (wikipedia.org)
  • For applications in proposed fusion energy reactors, such as ITER, pebbles consisting of lithium bearing ceramics including Li2TiO3 and Li4SiO4, are being developed for tritium breeding within a helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB), also known as a breeder blanket. (wikipedia.org)
  • equilibrium
  • Exchangeable organic tritium and HTO quickly return to equilibrium with the water in the animal's body. (irsn.fr)
  • The global equilibrium inventory of tritium created by natural sources remains approximately constant at 2,590,000 terabecquerels. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] As the tritium component of the lighting is often more expensive than the rest of the watch itself, manufacturers try to use as little as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • signs
  • Tritium is used in exit signs to light the exit in the event of an electrical outage or a fire . (factbites.com)
  • We are moving towards elimination of tritium exit signs and are looking into using photoluminescent exit signs. (great-lakes.net)
  • with tritium-powered exit signs relative to landfill disposal. (great-lakes.net)
  • proper disposal of the tritium exit signs. (great-lakes.net)
  • As tritium illumination requires no electrical energy, it has found wide use in applications such as emergency exit signs, illumination of wristwatches, and portable yet very reliable sources of low intensity light which won't degrade human night vision or easily alert others to your presence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tritium exit signs usually come in three brightness levels guaranteed for 10-, 15-, or 20-year useful life expectancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between the signs is how much tritium the manufacturer installs. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • The equation is conservative for fruits, roots and tubers, which draw most of their tritium from the soil, which is less contaminated than the humidity of the air in the case of an atmospheric discharge. (irsn.fr)
  • half-life
  • Tritium is unimportant in advanced stellar evolution (Cujec and Fowler, 1980), and its 12.5-year β-decay half-life ensures its virtual natural absence in the neutral atomic state, giving an extraordinarily quiet background for beacon acquisition. (factbites.com)
  • that means let's say 10 years is the half-life of a tritium marker, that means in 10 years time the amount of radiation (the light) coming from it is half as bright. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • They measured the magnetic moment of both tritium and helium-3, and Novick measured the half-life of tritium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sight
  • The reticle on the SA80's optical SUSAT sight as well as the LPS 4x6° TIP2 telescopic sight of a PSL rifle, contains a small amount of tritium for the same effect as an example of tritium use on a rifle sight. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitrogen
  • In the most important reaction for natural production, a fast neutron (which must have energy greater than 4.0 MeV) interacts with atmospheric nitrogen: Worldwide, the production of tritium from natural sources is 148,000 terabecquerels per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • This reaction has a quite small absorption cross section , making heavy water a good neutron moderator , and relatively little tritium is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,800 short tons) of heavy water a year, and it separates out about 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) of tritium, making it available for other uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2014 it was made public that a total of 875 TBq (2.45 g) of tritium are on the site of Fukushima Daiichi , and the amount of tritium contained in the contaminated water is increasing by approximately 230 TBq (0.64 g) per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals can ingest tritium in the form of HTO in food and drinking water and in the form of OBT found in the organic fraction of their food. (irsn.fr)
  • 10. It is also important to note that the tritium present was diluted by at least some portion of 1 million liters of water accounting for BILLIONS of TUs. (rense.com)
  • Commercial nuclear power plants also discharge tritium into public water bodies. (ieer.org)
  • Since tritiated water is processed by plants, animals and humans like ordinary water, the tritium in it can become transformed into other chemicals, such as proteins, needed by the body. (ieer.org)
  • The current drinking water standard for tritium of 20,000 picocuries per liter does not take non-cancer effects of tritium, such as miscarriages, into account. (ieer.org)
  • It is noteworthy in this context that the surface water standard for tritium in the State of Colorado is 500 picocuries per liter, which is 40 times more stringent that the EPA drinking water standard. (ieer.org)
  • exposure
  • Further, the combined effects of in-utero exposure to substances such as tritium combined with endocrine disrupting chemicals such as dioxins or PCBs are also not well understood. (ieer.org)
  • Search
  • Observation of the tritium line may also be useful as a search for evidence for the by-products of a spacefaring industrial civilization (Freitas, 1985). (factbites.com)
  • Italian
  • E.Viareggio-Tritium 1-1 21/11/12" (in Italian). (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.cesenacalcio.it/index.php?mod=scheda&id=37 "Tommaso Arrigoni in prestito al Tritium" (in Italian). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tommaso Arrigoni rientra dal prestito al Tritium" (in Italian). (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.goal.com/it/news/2/serie-a/2011/11/05/2744608/al-cesena-è-tempo-di-arrigoni-dinasty-dopo-larrivo-di-daniele-in- "Tritium vicina a T.Arrigoni" (in Italian). (wikipedia.org)
  • environment
  • Even so, cleaning tritium from the moderator may be desirable after several years to reduce the risk of its escaping to the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • You can put a tritium vial inside a dark box in your basement for several years, and when you open the box it will still be glowing brightly, no change. (candlepowerforums.com)
  • light
  • Tritium lights are also found in some old rotary dial telephones, though due to their age they no longer produce a useful amount of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • beta
  • The unusually low energy released in the tritium beta decay makes the decay (along with that of rhenium-187 ) appropriate for absolute neutrino mass measurements in the laboratory (the most recent experiment being KATRIN ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tritium lights or beta lights were formerly[when? (wikipedia.org)
  • uses
  • The importance of tritium as a strategic material in the creation of thermonuclear weaponry, given the insignificance of its other uses, cannot be overstressed. (factbites.com)
  • The $() uses XPath $("//table[@id='foo']") { # change the width attributes to "100%" attribute("width", "100%") } Both Tritium and XSLT are designed for transforming data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imperative style: Tritium uses an imperative programming style instead of the functional and recursive processing model of XSLT. (wikipedia.org)
  • report
  • Tritium level confirmed in the DOE report of traces of tritium = 3,530 pCi/L (+/- 170 pCi/L, but we will use the mean of 3,530 pCi/L). 3,530 pCi/L (the referenced lab value) divided by the backgroud level of 20TUs (20 X 3.231 p (1 TU = 3.21 pCi/L) = 64.62 pCi/L as the high normal background/standard level. (rense.com)
  • Subsequent to the submission of the written report required by this paragraph, the licensee shall promptly inform the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards by means of a written report of any substantive additional information, which becomes available to the licensee, concerning an attempted or apparent theft or unlawful diversion of tritium. (cornell.edu)
  • According to a report by Tepco "Tritium could be separated theoretically, but there is no practical separation technology on an industrial scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • trace
  • 2. Trace definition as it applies to quantity: Occurring in extremely small amounts or in quantities less than a standard limit (In the case of tritium, this standard level would be 20 TUs - the high of quoted standard background levels. (rense.com)
  • approximately
  • In contrast, approximately half the tritium taken in by the animal in the form of OBT is converted into HTO, with the other half remaining in organic form (IAEA, 2010). (irsn.fr)
  • data
  • Tritium takes as input HTML, XML, or JSON documents and outputs HTML, XML, or JSON data that has been transformed according to the rules defined in the Tritium script. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1983). Subsystem Cost Data for the Tritium Systems Test Assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • make
  • However Tritium differs in key ways to make it more familiar and easier to use for web developers: Familiar syntax: Tritium's syntax is similar to CSS and jQuery so that it's more familiar and readable to web developers than the XML based syntax of XSLT. (wikipedia.org)
  • instead
  • Tritium is not absorbed by the bone marrow or other body organs and instead is expelled from the body through urination in a very short period of time. (factbites.com)
  • Out of curiosity, why is tritium instead of any of the other luminescent material used? (candlepowerforums.com)
  • fuel
  • d) The reports described in this section are not required for tritium possessed pursuant to a general license provided in part 31 of this chapter or for tritium contained in spent fuel. (cornell.edu)