• biosynthetic
  • It depletes intracellular phosphate reserves which leads to loss of ATP and inhibition of biosynthetic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells adapted to 25°C expressed changes in the abundance of 219 unique proteins representing a broad range of categories such as translation, glycolysis, biosynthetic (anabolic) processes, NAD, cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, oxidoreductase activity, response-to-stress and cell redox homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • hydrogen
  • Glyceraldehyde can be prepared, along with dihydroxyacetone, by the mild oxidation of glycerol, for example with hydrogen peroxide and a ferrous salt as catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atom balance is maintained by the two phosphate (Pi) groups: Each exists in the form of a hydrogen phosphate anion (HPO42−), dissociating to contribute 2 H+ overall Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule, contributing 2 O overall Charges are balanced by the difference between ADP and ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the wide V-groove, there are twelve hydrogen bonds and six salt bridges between the monomers in the presence of phosphate binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of phosphate binding, ten hydrogen bonds and two salt bridges hold the monomers together. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the peak interfaces, ten hydrogen bonds and no salt bridges connect the monomers regardless of phosphate binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergoes
  • Isovaleryl-CoA undergoes dehydrogenation , carboxylation and hydration to form another CoA-derivative intermediate before it is cleaved into acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate . (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • Under these conditions, there is a greater rate of cytosolic proton release from glycolysis and ATP hydrolysis, the cell buffering capacity is eventually exceeded, and acidosis develops. (sportsci.org)
  • synthesis
  • Fructose is metabolized almost completely in the liver in humans, and is directed toward replenishment of liver glycogen and triglyceride synthesis, while much of dietary glucose passes through the liver and goes to skeletal muscle, where it is metabolized to CO2, H2O and ATP, and to fat cells where it is metabolized primarily to glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis as well as energy production. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Besides the precisely placed glutamate and histidine residues to form the enediol, a ten- or eleven-amino acid chain of TPI acts as a loop to stabilize the intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second base deprotonates the hydroxyl group, leading to the collapse of the en-diol(ate) to form the 2-hydroxy 2-propenal enol intermediate along with dissocation of inorganic phosophate (-OPO3) through the cleavage of a C-O bond rather than an O-P bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • When fructose is absorbed, it is phosphorylated by fructokinase to form fructose 1-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to being toxic to cellular tissues, high levels of F1P traps phosphate in an unusable form that does not return to the general phosphate pool, resulting in depletion of both phosphate and ATP stores. (wikipedia.org)