• metabolites
  • Instead, it uses the synthetic nonoxidative glycolysis cycle to directly synthesize stoichiometric amounts of the two-carbon building block (acetyl-CoA), which is then converted to three-carbon metabolites to support growth. (pnas.org)
  • Using rational design, genome editing, and evolution, here we replaced the native glycolytic pathways in Escherichia coli with the previously designed nonoxidative glycolysis (NOG), which bypasses initial C3 formation and directly generates stoichiometric amounts of C2 metabolites. (pnas.org)
  • synthesis
  • Ribose 5-phosphate is used for the synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, of ATP, coenzymes such as coenzyme A, NAD, NADP and FAD, and of the essential amino acids tryptophan and histidine. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Fructose is metabolized almost completely in the liver in humans, and is directed toward replenishment of liver glycogen and triglyceride synthesis, while much of dietary glucose passes through the liver and goes to skeletal muscle, where it is metabolized to CO2, H2O and ATP, and to fat cells where it is metabolized primarily to glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis as well as energy production. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • it is activated to 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), in the reaction catalyzed by ribose phosphate pyrophosphokinase or PRPP synthase (EC 2.7.6.1). (tuscany-diet.net)
  • ions
  • TPI is inhibited by sulfate, phosphate, and arsenate ions, which bind to the active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • This returns ADP, phosphate ions Pi, and NADP+ to the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis for their continued function. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Glyceraldehyde can be prepared, along with dihydroxyacetone, by the mild oxidation of glycerol, for example with hydrogen peroxide and a ferrous salt as catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atom balance is maintained by the two phosphate (Pi) groups: Each exists in the form of a hydrogen phosphate anion (HPO42−), dissociating to contribute 2 H+ overall Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule, contributing 2 O overall Charges are balanced by the difference between ADP and ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the wide V-groove, there are twelve hydrogen bonds and six salt bridges between the monomers in the presence of phosphate binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of phosphate binding, ten hydrogen bonds and two salt bridges hold the monomers together. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the peak interfaces, ten hydrogen bonds and no salt bridges connect the monomers regardless of phosphate binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergoes
  • Isovaleryl-CoA undergoes dehydrogenation , carboxylation and hydration to form another CoA-derivative intermediate before it is cleaved into acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate . (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • Under these conditions, there is a greater rate of cytosolic proton release from glycolysis and ATP hydrolysis, the cell buffering capacity is eventually exceeded, and acidosis develops. (sportsci.org)
  • biosynthetic
  • Cells adapted to 25°C expressed changes in the abundance of 219 unique proteins representing a broad range of categories such as translation, glycolysis, biosynthetic (anabolic) processes, NAD, cytoskeletal organization, RNA processing, oxidoreductase activity, response-to-stress and cell redox homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)