• congenital
  • Other symptoms include: Neck pain Occasional formation of a mass Thickened or tight sternocleidomastoid muscle Tenderness on the cervical spine Tremor in head Unequal shoulder heights Decreased neck movement A multitude of conditions may lead to the development of torticollis including: muscular fibrosis, congenital spine abnormalities, or toxic or traumatic brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other categories include: Osseous Traumatic CNS/PNS Ocular Non-muscular soft tissue Spasmodic Drug induced The congenital muscular torticollis is the most common torticollis which present at birth. (wikipedia.org)

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  • Pulmonary
  • 10% on CBC mononeuropathy or polyneuropathy migratory or transient pulmonary opacities on chest x-ray (CXR) paranasal sinus abnormalities vessel biopsy showing eosinophils in extravascular areas Microscopic polyarteritis/polyangiitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary stenosis and left-to-right shunt through the ductus), it may be advisable to improve oxygenation by maintaining the ductus open with prostaglandin treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • both were exposed to chemotherapy and delivered prematurely, but both deaths were thought not to be related to treatment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The main use of cyclophosphamide is with other chemotherapy agents in the treatment of lymphomas, some forms of brain cancer, neuroblastoma, leukemia and some solid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adverse drug reactions from cyclophosphamide are related to the cumulative medication dose and include chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, bone marrow suppression, stomach ache, hemorrhagic cystitis, diarrhea, darkening of the skin/nails, alopecia (hair loss) or thinning of hair, changes in color and texture of the hair and lethargy. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin
  • In accordance with the above, MC4 receptor agonists have garnered interest as potential treatments for obesity and insulin resistance, while MC4 receptor antagonists have attracted interest as potential treatments for cachexia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth
  • First trimester exposure to cyclophosphamide for the treatment of cancer or lupus displays a pattern of anomalies labeled "cyclophosphamide embryopathy," including growth restriction, ear and facial abnormalities, absence of digits and hypoplastic limbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficits
  • And agonists of the MC4 receptor such as melanotan II and PF-00446687, via activation of the central oxytocin system, have been found to promote pair bond formation in prairie voles and, due to these prosocial effects, have been suggested as possible treatments for social deficits in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent treatment of rodents with amphetamine models some symptoms of schizophrenia including hyperactivity, enduring prepulse inhibition abnormalities, and cognitive abnormalities associated with the prefrontal cortex including attention deficits. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Neuroleptic treatment itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome, and thereby may possibly mask the underlying disease process. (mentalhealth.com)
  • The symptoms of DRESS syndrome usually begin several weeks after exposure to the offending drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • No treatments stop or reverse its progression, though some may temporarily improve symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severity (usually a pain rating) Modifying factors (what aggravates/reduces the symptoms - activities, postures, drugs, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional symptoms (un/related or significant symptoms to the chief complaint) Treatment (has the patient seen another provider for this symptom? (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • EP4 is the major receptor associated with PGE2-induced dilation of the DA and can be found across the DA in smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MC4 receptor agonists like bremelanotide (PT-141), PL-6983, and PF-00446687 are under investigation as powerful potential treatments for both female and male sexual dysfunction, including hypoactive sexual desire disorder and erectile dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The non-selective melanocortin receptor agonist afamelanotide (NDP-α-MSH) has been found to induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rodent brain via activation of the MC4 receptor and mediate "intense" neurogenesis and cognitive recovery in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • Interestingly, most conventional medical practice appears to have very little interest in investigating medically induced causes of disorders and finding ways to remove them. (homeopathicassociates.com)
  • Genetic factors and mental disorders can contribute to the severity of drug addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnant
  • Part II discusses ventricular arrhythmias and the management of rhythm abnormalities in special populations, including pregnant women, athletes, and children. (aafp.org)
  • A woman in this situation may be unable to become pregnant, even with the help of drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficacy
  • Cyclophosphamide, used in combination with thalidomide or lenalidomide and dexamethasone has documented efficacy as an off-label treatment of AL amyloidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intermittent dosing of cyclophosphamide decreases cumulative drug dose, reduces bladder exposure to acrolein and has equal efficacy to daily treatment in the management of lupus nephritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • assessment
  • In March 2017, following its assessment of gadolinium agents used in body scans, the EMA's Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) recommended the suspension of certain MRI drugs. (drug-injury.com)
  • We turn now to the FDA's treatment of this drug-safety assessment of Magnevist, Omniscan, and OptiMARK, as well as the several other gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). (drug-injury.com)
  • In a pharmacist's SOAP note, the assessment will identify what the drug related/induced problem is likely to be and the reasoning/evidence behind it. (wikipedia.org)
  • schizophrenia
  • Research into the psychotic disorder of schizophrenia, involves multiple animal models as a tool, including in the pre-clinical development of drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each extreme has its limitations, with whole-syndrome modelling often failing due to the complexity and heterogeneous nature of schizophrenia, and antipsychotic-specific modelling being often not useful for discovering drugs with unique mechanisms of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for an animal model to be useful in developing treatments, results from the animal model must translate into results in the patient with schizophrenia, this is called the validity of the model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal models were first produced for schizophrenia by altering the dopaminergic system using drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • involvement
  • Findings from physical examinations, including basic systems of cardiac and respiratory, the affected systems, possible involvement of other systems, pertinent normal findings and abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase
  • Most studies through 2013 linking development of the fetus and cannabis show effects of consumption during the gestational period, but abnormalities in the endocannabinoid system during the phase of placental development are also linked with problems in pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • injury
  • Drug Injury Case Evaluation - Free. (drug-injury.com)
  • acetylcysteine for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. (uspharmacist.com)
  • LiverTox (https://livertox.nih.gov) is a clinical and research database developed by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Library of Medicine, and the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) study group to provide up-to-date, comprehensive clinical information on DILI. (uspharmacist.com)
  • fever
  • Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever and primary CNS pathology. (mentalhealth.com)
  • dose
  • Both the risk of developing the syndrome and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of neuroleptic drugs administered to the patient increase. (mentalhealth.com)
  • patient
  • data were collected retrospectively if the patient was diagnosed before April, 2003 (when the registry began), or prospectively thereafter, irrespective of the outcome of pregnancy and the type and timing of treatment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. (mentalhealth.com)
  • If the arrhythmia is long-standing and the patient is not a suitable candidate for rate cardioversion, initial treatment should focus on ventricular rate control, with consideration given to long-term stroke prophylaxis. (aafp.org)
  • On the other hand, if the virus dominates by evolving quasispecies which code for altered proteins that interact differently with host proteins, or induce mutations in host protooncogenes, then the patient may develop liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Patient, environmental, and drug-related factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of DILI. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Corticosteroid treatment has also been suggested as an early treatment option in patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnancy
  • Treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy: an observational study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Little is known about the treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We aimed to determine whether treatment for breast cancer during pregnancy is safe for both mother and child. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A report prepared for the Australian National Council on Drugs concluded cannabis and other cannabinoids are contraindicated in pregnancy as they may interact with the endocannabinoid system. (wikipedia.org)
  • On June 21, 1976, the FDA approved the androgen danazol (Danocrine), a derivative of ethisterone (17α-ethinyl-testosterone), for treatment of endometriosis, with a warning that its use in pregnancy is contraindicated because of the risk of masculinization of external genitalia of female fetuses. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • The incidence of fetal masculinization of female external genitalia varies with the drug and dosage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first drugs reported to cause fetal masculinization were the androgens methandriol and methyltestosterone in the mid 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • In the United States, antibiotics and antiepileptic drugs are the most common drug classes associated with DILI, but HDS are on the rise as a cause. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Persistence of the ductus may be associated with other abnormalities, and is much more common in females. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of behavioural problems or psychosis due to dementia with antipsychotics is common, but not usually recommended, as there is little benefit with an increased risk of early death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common case has no obvious cause, and the pain and difficulty with turning the head usually goes away after a few days, even without treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions
  • Therefore, understanding the interactions between viral proteins and host cell proteins is very important to develop drugs for these liver diseases and HCC. (hindawi.com)