• injury
  • COSTA MESA, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--May 15, 2007 - Synthetic Blood International, Inc. (OTCBB:SYBD) today announced positive data from a statistical analysis of its Phase IIa study with Oxycyte(TM) in patients with traumatic brain injury. (drugs.com)
  • This analysis further validates our initial study findings that Oxycyte is more effective in increasing brain oxygen tension levels and impacting other brain chemistries that contribute to more favorable clinical outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury, than breathing either 100% or 50% oxygen alone," said Robert Nicora, president and CEO. (drugs.com)
  • Based on these positive results, we are working with Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) to develop a protocol for a multicenter, controlled Phase IIb trial that could enroll up to 100 patients with traumatic brain injury. (drugs.com)
  • In this open label, Phase II proof-of-concept, eight-patient study conducted at Virginia Commonwealth University, Oxycyte was administered to patients with severe traumatic brain injury and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3-9. (drugs.com)
  • The primary purpose of this study is to demonstrate Oxycyte's ability to increase brain oxygen tension and favorably affect other brain chemistries that impact clinical outcome in patients suffering severe head injury. (drugs.com)
  • From time to time every psychiatrist comes across patients whose problems are at least in part related to the neuropsychiatric consequences (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) of traumatic brain injury (TBI). (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • The neuropsychiatric assessment starts by evaluating the severity of brain injury. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • In this way, the likely outcomes attributable to direct effects of brain injury can be determined, and any mismatch between these and what is observed can be attributed to psychological reactions or independent events. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • So, for example, in somebody with a severe psychotic illness that develops 3 months after an injury with no loss of consciousness, one can be fairly confident that the illness is not a direct consequence of the effects of brain injury on delusion formation. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • It is possible that the psychological trauma of the injury has allowed an acute psychotic reaction, or even that the injury was irrelevant and that the person was on the path to becoming schizophrenic anyway. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • On the other hand, it is likely that the psychotic illness is a direct effect of the brain injury in somebody in whom a delusional misidentification syndrome develops 3 months after an injury that was followed by coma for a week and delirium for several weeks. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • The duration of PTA is particularly useful as a measure of the severity of the brain injury because it can be measured retrospectively, eg, in the clinic years after injury, and it is a good predictor of outcome. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • As you know, we believe Oxycyte(TM) has the potential to help reduce the long-term brain damage to our forces who are blast injury casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Coagulopathy (which frequently accompanies severe head injury, as the body's richest source of tissue plasminogen activator [tPA] is in the brain) should be corrected first. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may also lead to cardiac dysfunction but evidences are mainly based upon experimental and clinical retrospective studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acute subdural hematoma is commonly associated with extensive primary brain injury. (medscape.com)
  • In recognition of this fact, a subdural hematoma that is not associated with an underlying brain injury is sometimes termed a simple or pure subdural hematoma. (medscape.com)
  • The term complicated has been applied to subdural hematomas in which a significant injury of the underlying brain has also been identified. (medscape.com)
  • This type of head injury also is strongly associated with delayed brain damage, later demonstrated on CT scan. (medscape.com)
  • Early administration of magnesium has attenuated experimental brain injury in rats. (medscape.com)
  • A limited trauma-induced coagulopathy as evidence by prolonged PT levels has been found in patients hospitalized for head injury, but PT levels return to normal after 12 hours and the clinical importance of this prolongation is currently unclear. (medscape.com)
  • For example, in a group of 909 consecutive patients who had experienced a mild head injury with a transient loss of consciousness, yet scored a full 15 on their initial GCS, all 57 (6%) patients with abnormal CT scans were identified by the presence of any one of the following clinical features: age older than 60 years, headaches, vomiting, alcohol or drug intoxication, trauma above the clavicles, memory problems, or seizures. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this research is to identify a biomarker to predict complications of brain injury, allowing us to decrease the severity and number of poor outcomes. (grantome.com)
  • Secondarily, it was also investigated that the brain edema formation and the induction of hsp70 and c-fos mRNA following traumatic injury using nonTg mice, and heterozygous and homozygous Tg mice (1.5,3.1, and 5.0 fold increased SOD activityies. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The PECARN (Paediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network) traumatic brain injury algorithm is a clinical decision rule that aims to identify children at very low risk of clinically important traumatic brain injury (ci-TBI) 1 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Another use is secondary screening to determine deviations in brain trauma at different times after a traumatic injury as well as initial shifts immediately after. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pediatric patients are treated in this intensive care unit for life-threatening medical problems such as asthma, influenza, diabetic ketoacidosis, or traumatic brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thromboembolism (blood clots) Embolism (foreign bodies in the circulation, e.g. amniotic fluid embolism) Traumatic injury to an extremity may produce partial or total occlusion of a vessel from compression, shearing or laceration. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is the honorary director of the National Institute for Health Research's Healthcare Technology Cooperative (HTC) for brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cambridge HTC is the only HTC to focus on brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pickard's research focuses on the care of critically ill patients after brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • He suffered a traumatic brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Irregular respirations occur when injury to parts of the brain interfere with the respiratory drive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolonged hypoxia induces neuronal cell death via apoptosis, resulting in a hypoxic brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain injury may still occur in a TIA lasting only a few minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgical
  • ADH deficiency is more commonly caused by lesions affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary stalk and may be caused by trauma (including surgical trauma), parasellar or suprasellar tumors (such as craniopharyngioma or metastases) or infiltrative diseases (e.g., sarcoidosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis). (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • patient
  • Due to a technical malfunction whereby a complete measurement of oxygen levels in the brain of one treated patient was not made, nine patients were treated during this study to meet the eight-patient enrollment goal. (drugs.com)
  • The immediate priority after patient stabilization is identification of any lesion/fracture on CT brain. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • artery
  • The anterior choroidal artery (AChA) is a critical artery in brain physiology and function. (medsci.org)
  • Although the AChA is a small thin artery, it supplies an extremely important region of the brain. (medsci.org)
  • It can be caused by embolism, thrombosis of an atherosclerotic artery, or trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinically important examples include: Circle of Willis (in the brain) Coronary: anterior interventricular artery and posterior interventricular artery of the heart Scapular anastomosis (for the subclavian vessels) Joint anastomoses: Almost all joints receive anastomotic blood supply from more than one source. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cases of veins or arteries, traumatic fistulas usually occur between artery and vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • focal
  • 15, suspected open or depressed skull fracture, sign of fracture at the skull base (raccoon eyes, Battle's sign, hemotympanum, cerebrospinal fluid leakage from the ears or nose), post-traumatic seizure, focal neurological deficit, vomiting, amnesia of events. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • structures
  • This guide also provides detailed information regarding the identification of primary brain regions, anatomical structures, systems or pathways using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging techniques. (oup.com)
  • A brain atlas is included using both CT and MRI sequences to facilitate the reader's ability to identify most primary brain structures. (oup.com)
  • Identifying the location of these structures on a damaged brains compared to an unaffected brain is another way of categorizing the severity of the midline shift. (wikipedia.org)
  • arteries
  • citation needed] Pathological anastomoses result from trauma or disease and may involve veins, arteries, or intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • In the highly metabolically active tissues of the heart and brain, irreversible damage to tissues can occur in as little as 3-4 minutes at body temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traumatic intestinal fistulas usually occur between two loops of intestine (entero-enteric fistula) or intestine and skin (enterocutaneous fistula). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperventilation can occur when the brain stem or tegmentum is damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • And also we have examined the effect of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhib … More itors, L-NAME (neuronal and endothelial NOS inhibitor) and 7-NI (selective neuronal NOS inhibitor) and 7-NI (selective neuronal NOS inhibitor) on brain infarction in both mice, since nitric oxide (NO) has been considered to react with superoxide radicals and form peroxynitrite, a strong oxidant. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Glutamate is also used by the brain to synthesize GABA (γ-Aminobutyric acid), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system, which plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system and is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • insults
  • His work has included definition of how early insults to the brain in both childhood and later life may lead to late changes in cognitive outcome and new ways of detecting when the blood supply to critical areas of the brain becomes a risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • herniation
  • They are caused by a traumatic downward displacement of the brainstem with hippocampal gyrus herniation through the tentorial notch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that he had suddenly collapsed and become comatose when he stood up on his last day of life, has been interpreted as brain herniation and Duret haemorrhages. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTSD
  • Individuals given propranolol immediately after trauma experienced fewer stress-related symptoms and lower rates of PTSD than respective control groups who did not receive the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aneurysms
  • During treatment for aneurysms, tumors, AVM or AVF, the AChA cisternal segments should be preserved as a pathway to prevent the infarction of the AChA target region in the brain. (medsci.org)
  • behavioral
  • Ethical and legal questions have been raised surrounding the use of propranolol-based medications for use as a "memory damper", including: altering memory-recalled evidence during an investigation, modifying behavioral response to past (albeit traumatic) experiences, the regulation of these drugs, and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • In brain infarcts, rapid treatment is necessary to prevent brain damage. (medsci.org)
  • The severity of brain damage is determined by the magnitude of the change in symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Implications of Cochrane's neuropathology have shown that damage to specific regions of the brain is associated with different forms of memory loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • In the NOS inhibitor experiment, L-NAME treated-Tg mice showed significantly bigger infarct volume than saline-treated ones, whereas 7-NI showed the tendency to decrease the infarction in Tg mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Clinical data on brain oxygen and metabolite levels are compared in patients from both groups. (drugs.com)
  • Chapters in this book progress from a general description of the clinical use of brain images and the interpretation of scans, to more complex material involving neuroanatomy and imaging technology. (oup.com)
  • With colleagues, Pickard established and was the first chairman and clinical director of the Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre (WBIC), a division of the University of Cambridge's Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Pickard, in his capacity with the WBIC, worked with patients who were critically ill, the morbidly obese and patients with acute mental health and addiction problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the above, if mass effect is present with resulting displacement of brain tissue, additional signs may include pupillary dilatation, abducens palsies, and the Cushing's triad. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brain requires approximately 3.3 ml of oxygen per 100 g of brain tissue per minute. (wikipedia.org)
  • the oxygen level in the brain tissue will depend on how the body deals with the reduced oxygen content of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • medial
  • The AChA supplies an extremely important region of the brain that includes the posterior limb of the internal capsule, optical tract, lateral geniculate body, medial temporal lobe, and medial area of the pallidum [ 4 ]. (medsci.org)
  • stem
  • The sign is considered ominous because it is commonly associated with a distortion of the brain stem that can cause serious dysfunction evidenced by abnormal posturing and failure of the pupils to constrict in response to light. (wikipedia.org)
  • head
  • Blood alcohol levels and drug screens are important because positive results may help explain subnormal levels of consciousness and cognition in some patients with head trauma. (medscape.com)
  • Blunt head trauma is common in children and a common reason for presentation to an emergency department. (radiopaedia.org)
  • emergency department
  • The algorithm was created from patients presenting to an emergency department within 24 hours of the trauma and with blunt trauma only. (radiopaedia.org)
  • These are found only in hospitals certified in Trauma and have a dedicated Trauma Emergency Department equipped with a team of surgeons, nurses, respiratory therapists, and radiological staff. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • TIAs and strokes present with the same symptoms such as contralateral paralysis (opposite side of body from affected brain hemisphere), or sudden weakness or numbness. (wikipedia.org)