• organs
  • One of the earliest mentions about the real possibility of a kidney transplant was by American medical researcher Simon Flexner, who declared in a reading of his paper on "Tendencies in Pathology" in the University of Chicago in 1907 that it would be possible in the then-future for diseased human organs substitution for healthy ones by surgery, including arteries, stomach, kidneys and heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Failure of neurologic, cardiac, kidney, and gastrointestinal (GI) organs, as well as death, can occur unpredictably at any time, either very quickly or following prolonged symptomatic or asymptomatic disease progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kidneys are paired vital organs located behind the abdominal cavity at the bottom of the ribcage corresponding to the levels T12-L3 of the spine vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
  • This, as well as scarcity of donor organs for kidney transplantation has prompted research in developing alternative therapies, including the development of a wearable or implantable device. (wikipedia.org)
  • congestive heart f
  • Additionally low calcium concentrations in the blood, overactive muscle reflexes, muscle spasms, QT interval prolongation, and congestive heart failure may occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • In humans, the kidneys are located high in the abdominal cavity, one on each side of the spine, and lie in a retroperitoneal position at a slightly oblique angle. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunosuppressive
  • Although the donated kidney was rejected ten months later because no immunosuppressive therapy was available at the time-the development of effective antirejection drugs was years away-the intervening time gave Tucker's remaining kidney time to recover and she lived another five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • The acute part of AoCRF may be reversible, and the goal of treatment, as with AKI, is to return the patient to baseline kidney function, typically measured by serum creatinine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The asymmetry within the abdominal cavity, caused by the position of the liver, typically results in the right kidney being slightly lower and smaller than the left, and being placed slightly more to the middle than the left kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAN is characterized by a gradual decline in kidney function and, typically, accompanied by high blood pressure and hematuria. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteinuria
  • Laboratory tests may also reveal low levels of platelets (cells in the blood that aid in clotting), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, a chemical released from damaged cells, and which is therefore a marker of cellular damage), decreased haptoglobin (indicative of the breakdown of red blood cells), anemia (low red blood cell count)/schistocytes (damaged red blood cells), elevated creatinine (indicative of kidney dysfunction), and proteinuria (indicative of kidney injury). (wikipedia.org)
  • Complications
  • Causes of intestinal failure may be clinically complex, and may result from a combination of nutritional, infectious, traumatic, and metabolic complications that affect ordinary anatomy and physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nephrons, the urine-producing functional structures of the kidney, span the cortex and medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other symptoms include acute tubular necrosis, red blood cells in the urine, excess proteins in the urine, lower back pain, decreased or absent production of urine, elevated blood concentration of potassium, and acute kidney failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • pediatric
  • The purpose of this study is to generate information which will help to change the current practice of pediatric transplantation into one that is more individualized and preventative. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • uncommon
  • Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is an uncommon cause of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding or iron deficiency anemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • collagen
  • Although much is known about the molecular background and mediators that prompt fibroblasts or transdifferentiated kidney cells to release collagen and matrix ( 4 - 6 ), the search for a unique event that initiates the process remains inconclusive. (diabetesjournals.org)