• latent
  • It has thus been suggested that it may have multiple functions: as a member of the TGF-beta latent complex, as a structural component of microfibrils, and a role in cell adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • latency associated
  • They each have an N-terminal signal peptide of 20-30 amino acids that they require for secretion from a cell, a pro-region called latency associated peptide (LAP - Alias: Pro-TGF beta 1, LAP/TGF beta 1), and a 112-114 amino acid C-terminal region that becomes the mature TGF-β molecule following its release from the pro-region by proteolytic cleavage. (wikipedia.org)
  • prognosis
  • Also, active Wnt/beta-catenin pathway correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients in the clinic. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptional
  • The transcriptional factor p38 activation induced by GDF2 has been documented in other cell types such as osteosarcoma cells, human osteoclasts derived from cord blood monocytes, and dental follicle stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoforms
  • Snail and Slug are known to regulate the expression of p63 isoforms, another transcription factor that is required for proper development of epithelial structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The p63 factor is involved in inhibiting EMT and reduction of certain p63 isoforms may be important in the development of epithelial cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • These results suggest that transforming growth factor-beta 1 may play a role in both the termination of the bile duct epithelial cell proliferative response and the induction of fibrogenesis after common bile duct ligation. (nih.gov)
  • progression
  • Loss of ELF could serve as a primary event in progression toward a fully transformed phenotype and could hold promise for new therapeutic approaches in human HCCs. (nih.gov)
  • bound
  • GDF2 (BMP9) is secreted as a pro-complex consisting of the BMP9 growth factor dimer non-covalently bound to two BMP9 prodomain molecules in an open-armed conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Although TGF-β is important in regulating crucial cellular activities, only few TGF beta signaling pathway activations are currently known, and yet, the full mechanism behind the suggested activation pathways is not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3K)/AKT axis, Hedgehog signaling pathway, nuclear factor-kappaB and Activating Transcription Factor 2 have also been implicated to be involved in EMT. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • RUNX2 is another factor who's up regulate by GDF2. (wikipedia.org)
  • and, (2) some factors which normally lead to inflammation are present at high levels in the testis, where they regulate the development of sperm instead of promoting inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • The MH2 domain is also a binding platform for cytoplasmic anchors, DNA-binding cofactors, histone modifiers, chromatin readers, and nucleosome- positioning factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Disruption of transforming growth factor-beta signaling through beta-spectrin ELF leads to hepatocellular cancer through cyclin D1 activation. (nih.gov)
  • It is well known that perturbations of these activating factors can lead to unregulated TGF-β signaling levels that may cause several complications including inflammation, autoimmune disorders, fibrosis, cancer and cataracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Restrain of Cancer cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • DACH1 inhibits Cyclin D1 expression and thereby reduces breast cancer cell line cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two hormones often promote the growth of breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • They play fundamental roles in the regulation of basic biological processes such as growth, development , tissue homeostasis and regulation of the immune system . (wikipedia.org)