• Tumor
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used RNA and chromatin from insulin-treated rat hepatic tumor cell line expressing human insulin receptor (HTC-IR) and livers from lean and insulin-resistant ob/ob glucose-fed mice in quantitative RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies to determine gene expression levels and associated recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), insulin receptor, and cognate signaling proteins to gene loci, respectively. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For example, in at least one prostate tumor, a single chromoplectic event generated the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion while inactivating other tumor suppressor genes such as SMAD4. (wikipedia.org)
  • chimeric
  • Chimeric RNA, sometimes referred to as a fusion transcript, is composed of exons from two or more different genes and have the potential to encode novel proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, occasionally gene products or pre-mRNA transcripts are spliced together so that exons from different transcripts are mixed together in a fusion product known as chimeric RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chimeric RNA often incorporates exons from highly expressed genes, but the chimeric transcript itself is usually expressed at low levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the first studies to investigate the generation of chimeric RNA examined the fusion of the first three exons of a gene known as JAZF1 to the last 15 exons of a gene known as JJAZ1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rearrangement of chromosome 22 involves intron 8 of EWS and exon 1 of this gene creating a chimeric sequence containing the transactivation domain of EWS fused to zinc finger domain of this protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • Recombination of antigen-receptor loci is regulated both by the developmentally controlled expression of the Rag1 and Rag2 genes and the accessibility of particular loci and their gene segments to recombination. (springer.com)
  • OBJECTIVE Insulin receptor (IR) translocates to the nucleus, but its recruitment to gene loci has not been demonstrated. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Importantly, there is evidence for recruitment of RTKs to chromatin and gene loci, and for several RTKs the recruitment increases transcription ( 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The fact that RTKs and the terminal mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) can be inducibly recruited to chromatin presents the possibility that canonical insulin signaling pathways are recapitulated along gene loci. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These mRNAs are different from those produced by conventional splicing as they are produced by two or more gene loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • The regulated expression of B-lineage associated genes during B-cell differentiation in bone marrow and fetal liver. (springer.com)
  • The Vγ3 and Vγ4 genes, located downstream in the TCRγ Cγ1 gene cluster, are expressed by the earliest waves of developing TCRγδ + T cells in the fetal thymus, destined for intraepithelial locations. (rupress.org)
  • This developmental pattern is caused in part by a preference for rearrangements of the downstream Vγ3 and Vγ4 genes in the early fetal stage, which switches to a preference for rearrangements of the upstream Vγ2 and Vγ5 gene rearrangements in the adult. (rupress.org)
  • Our gene targeting studies show that the downstream Vγ genes rearrange preferentially in the early fetal thymus because of their downstream location, independent of promoter or recombination signal sequences and unrelated to the extent of germline transcription. (rupress.org)
  • Remarkably, gene deletion studies show that the downstream Vγ genes competitively inhibit upstream Vγ rearrangements at the fetal stage. (rupress.org)
  • These data provide a mechanism for specialization of the fetal thymus for the production of T cells expressing specific Vγ genes. (rupress.org)
  • In the fetal period, all of the genes are in an open configuration, and the closer Vγ3 and Vγ4 genes enjoy an advantage in rearrangement because of their downstream location proximal to Jγ1 . (rupress.org)
  • protein
  • Induction by ionizing radiation of the gadd45 gene in cultured human cells: lack of mediation by protein kinase C". Mol Cell Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myosin essential light chain (ELC), ventricular/cardiac isoform is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYL3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tether containing UBX domain for GLUT4 (TUG) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ASPSCR1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc finger protein 384 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZNF384 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein appears to bind and regulate the promoters of the extracellular matrix genes MMP1, MMP3, MMP7 and COL1A1. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fusion protein binds with enhanced affinity to sites on the cell's DNA, blocking transcription and differentiation of granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • paired-like homeodomain 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PITX1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike replication, where a complete copy of DNA is made, transcription copies only the gene that is to be expressed as a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creating a protein consists of two main steps: transcription of DNA into RNA and translation of RNA into protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • POZ-, AT hook-, and zinc finger-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PATZ1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene contains an AT-hook DNA binding motif, which usually binds to other DNA binding structures to play an important role in chromatin modeling and transcription regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA-binding protein FUS/TLS (Fused in Sarcoma/Translocated in Sarcoma) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FUS gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beyond nucleic acid binding, FUS/TLS was also found to associate with both general and more specialized protein factors to influence the initiation of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Much of this diversity is caused by a great potential variability in CDR3 sequences in the TCR δ chain, but there is also diversity in the number of V, J, and (in the case of δ) D gene segments. (rupress.org)
  • Altogether, the phage has 12 coding sequences (CDS) and 12 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should be noted that these sequences of unknown function could be remnants of viral sequence insertions, a common feature with other Mollicute genomes, as they contain repeated clusters of genes that could be "mobile genetic elements or remnants of ancient phage attacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormalities
  • The most common abnormalities are t(9;22) and MLL gene rearrangement at 11q23. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCR/ABL induce cell adhesive and migratory abnormalities because the mutation will lead an abnormal response to chemokine SDF-1 MLL gene encode Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase (HRX), which is a histone methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of biphenotypic leukemia in children is due to the rearrangement of MLL Besides them, other gene abnormalities has been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • translocation
  • We present one case of histiocytic sarcoma and initially occult follicular lymphoma in which detection of a BCL2 gene translocation helped support the diagnosis. (stanford.edu)
  • The most frequent translocation is t(15,17)(q21;q22), which fuses the RARA gene with the PML gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • histone
  • A plant homeodomain in RAG-2 that binds Hypermethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 is necessary for efficient antigen-receptor-gene rearrangement. (springer.com)
  • In the absence of ligand, DNA-bound RXR/RARA represses transcription by recruiting the corepressors NCOR1, SMRT (NCOR2), and histone deacetylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • When ligand binds to the complex, it induces a conformational change allowing the recruitment of coactivators, histone acetyltransferases, and the basic transcription machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • RARA
  • Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR-α), also known as NR1B1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group B, member 1) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the RARA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Definitive diagnosis requires testing for the PML/RARA fusion gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemokine
  • The association of allergen with IgE bound to FcϵRI trigger signaling cascades leading to activation of kinases, phosphatases, and GTPases, which subsequently induce a variety of events, such as degranulation, cytoskeleton rearrangement, increased gene transcription, and cytokine/chemokine production, in the activated mast cells ( 1 , 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fusion
  • We also provide follow up regarding a previously published case of histiocytic sarcoma with IGH/BCL2 fusion gene in which the patient subsequently developed follicular lymphoma and, later, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (stanford.edu)
  • RAR-α/PLZF gene fusion produces a subtype of APL that is unresponsive to tretinoin therapy and less responsive to standard anthracycline chemotherapy hence leading to poorer long-term outcomes in this subset of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, "deletion bridges" may be seen in chromoplexy that represent lost DNA at the fusion junctions of rearrangements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ewing's
  • Targeted chemotherapies focused on the rearranged genes and their products in Ewing's sarcoma are being actively investigated. (empowher.com)
  • sarcoma
  • This gene is a candidate gene for alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS). (wikipedia.org)
  • In small round cell sarcoma, this gene is fused to EWS by a small inversion of 22q, then the hybrid is thought to be translocated (t(1;22)(p36.1;q12). (wikipedia.org)
  • upstream
  • Upstream Vγ2 and Vγ5 genes are expressed in later waves in the adult and constitute most TCRγδ + T cells in secondary lymphoid tissue. (rupress.org)
  • encode
  • This gene also contains long CAG trinucleotide repeats that encode consecutive glutamine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • We discovered a distinct gene pattern in blood samples from some patients in our study and wanted to determine the underlying molecular events behind this signal. (stjude.org)
  • distinct
  • Reporter gene assays, leptomycin B (LMB) sensitivity experiments, and RNase protection assays indicate that RU5 gag RNA accesses a nuclear export pathway that is distinct from the LMB-inhibited leucine-rich nuclear export sequence-dependent CRM1 pathway, which is used by the HIV-1 RRE. (jove.com)
  • chromatin
  • In prostate cancers containing ETS+gene fusions (such as TMPRSS2-ERG), chromoplexy breakpoints are generally clustered within actively transcribed DNA and open chromatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • The variable region rearrangements happen in an orderly sequence in the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia can be distinguished from other types of AML based on microscopic examination of the blood film or a bone marrow aspirate or biopsy as well as finding the characteristic rearrangement. (wikipedia.org)
  • deletion
  • The deregulation of ERG compromised the function of ERG either by deletion of part of the gene, or by the expression of another form of ERG (ERGalt). (stjude.org)
  • Most individuals with SCS have a single large deletion in the region 7p21, which contains the region that codes for the TWIST gene. (wikipedia.org)