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  • oncogenic
  • tretinoin), the acid form of vitamin A. Treatment with ATRA dissociates the NCOR-HDACL complex from RAR and allows DNA transcription and differentiation of the immature leukemic promyelocytes into mature granulocytes by targeting the oncogenic transcription factor and its aberrant action. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used RNA and chromatin from insulin-treated rat hepatic tumor cell line expressing human insulin receptor (HTC-IR) and livers from lean and insulin-resistant ob/ob glucose-fed mice in quantitative RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies to determine gene expression levels and associated recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), insulin receptor, and cognate signaling proteins to gene loci, respectively. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This form of B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) features genetic changes to two transcription factors known as DUX4 and ERG, proteins that closely control the activities of other crucial genes in human blood cells. (stjude.org)
  • Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the expression of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA. (stjude.org)
  • ChIP sequencing, a method that allows researchers to analyze how proteins interact with DNA, was crucial to reveal the link between the two transcription factors. (stjude.org)
  • The exons of these 25,000 genes can be spliced in many different ways to create countless combinations of RNA transcripts and ultimately countless proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • RESULTS Insulin-induced egr-1 mRNA in HTC-IR cells was associated with corecruitment of IR signaling cascade (IR, SOS, Grb2, B-Raf, MEK, and ERK) to this gene. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • fetal
  • The Vγ3 and Vγ4 genes, located downstream in the TCRγ Cγ1 gene cluster, are expressed by the earliest waves of developing TCRγδ + T cells in the fetal thymus, destined for intraepithelial locations. (rupress.org)
  • This developmental pattern is caused in part by a preference for rearrangements of the downstream Vγ3 and Vγ4 genes in the early fetal stage, which switches to a preference for rearrangements of the upstream Vγ2 and Vγ5 gene rearrangements in the adult. (rupress.org)
  • Our gene targeting studies show that the downstream Vγ genes rearrange preferentially in the early fetal thymus because of their downstream location, independent of promoter or recombination signal sequences and unrelated to the extent of germline transcription. (rupress.org)
  • Remarkably, gene deletion studies show that the downstream Vγ genes competitively inhibit upstream Vγ rearrangements at the fetal stage. (rupress.org)
  • These data provide a mechanism for specialization of the fetal thymus for the production of T cells expressing specific Vγ genes. (rupress.org)
  • In the fetal period, all of the genes are in an open configuration, and the closer Vγ3 and Vγ4 genes enjoy an advantage in rearrangement because of their downstream location proximal to Jγ1 . (rupress.org)
  • aberrant
  • These studies suggest a possibility that impaired Pol II processivity along genes bearing aberrant levels of IR/signal transducers is a previously unrecognized facet of insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • promoter
  • At the adult stage, repression of the downstream Vγ4 and Vγ3 genes through elements associated with the promoter segments overrides the downstream advantage resulting in preferential rearrangement of the upstream Vγ2 and Vγ5 gene segments. (rupress.org)
  • TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a promoter upstream from each leader gene segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • The variable region rearrangements happen in an orderly sequence in the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia can be distinguished from other types of AML based on microscopic examination of the blood film or a bone marrow aspirate or biopsy as well as finding the characteristic rearrangement. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • This gene also contains long CAG trinucleotide repeats that encode consecutive glutamine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCR/ABL induce cell adhesive and migratory abnormalities because the mutation will lead an abnormal response to chemokine SDF-1 MLL gene encode Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase (HRX), which is a histone methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • In prostate cancers containing ETS+gene fusions (such as TMPRSS2-ERG), chromoplexy breakpoints are generally clustered within actively transcribed DNA and open chromatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Much of this diversity is caused by a great potential variability in CDR3 sequences in the TCR δ chain, but there is also diversity in the number of V, J, and (in the case of δ) D gene segments. (rupress.org)
  • Altogether, the phage has 12 coding sequences (CDS) and 12 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should be noted that these sequences of unknown function could be remnants of viral sequence insertions, a common feature with other Mollicute genomes, as they contain repeated clusters of genes that could be "mobile genetic elements or remnants of ancient phage attacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • For example, in at least one prostate tumor, a single chromoplectic event generated the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion while inactivating other tumor suppressor genes such as SMAD4. (wikipedia.org)
  • histone
  • A plant homeodomain in RAG-2 that binds Hypermethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 is necessary for efficient antigen-receptor-gene rearrangement. (springer.com)
  • In the absence of ligand, DNA-bound RXR/RARA represses transcription by recruiting the corepressors NCOR1, SMRT (NCOR2), and histone deacetylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • When ligand binds to the complex, it induces a conformational change allowing the recruitment of coactivators, histone acetyltransferases, and the basic transcription machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • RARA
  • Definitive diagnosis requires testing for the PML/RARA fusion gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR-α), also known as NR1B1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group B, member 1) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the RARA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most frequent translocation is t(15,17)(q21;q22), which fuses the RARA gene with the PML gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Progressive diversification of paralogs after gene expansion is essential to increase their functional specialization. (beds.ac.uk)
  • and (c) splicing modification contributes to the functional specialization of novel genes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • On the other hands, Vk gene segments can join with either one of the Jk functional gene segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Recently, considerable progress has been achieved in assembling gene regulatory networks comprised of signaling components and transcription factors that regulate B-cell development. (springer.com)
  • The reason for the massive expansion of Zn-Fingers resides in the ability to bind DNA and regulate gene transcription in a tissue or cell-specific fashion. (beds.ac.uk)
  • putative
  • Detects transcripts of 5.0 kb (full-length) and 4.3 kb (putative alternative polyadenylation) in CHO cells, and 5.0 kb and 1.9 kb (truncated product from a rearrangement) from SRD-1 cells. (atcc.org)
  • upstream
  • Upstream Vγ2 and Vγ5 genes are expressed in later waves in the adult and constitute most TCRγδ + T cells in secondary lymphoid tissue. (rupress.org)
  • molecular
  • We discovered a distinct gene pattern in blood samples from some patients in our study and wanted to determine the underlying molecular events behind this signal. (stjude.org)
  • mice
  • In lean mice, there was glucose feeding-induced recruitment of IR and its transducers to Gck gene synchronized with elongating Pol II. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In searching for the gene responsible for SCS, scientists at Johns Hopkins Children's Center began studying the TWIST gene because its effects on mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TWIST gene in mice, functions in the development of the muscle and skeleton of the face, head, hands, and feet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice that were lacking both copies of the TWIST gene were spontaneously aborted prior to birth, and had serious deformities including abnormal limb and head defects and failure of the neural tube to properly close. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, mice with a single copy of the non-working TWIST gene survived. (wikipedia.org)
  • heavy chain
  • Heavy chain contains similar gene segments such as VH, JH and CH, but also has another gene segment called D (diversity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the light chain multigene family, VDJ gene segments code for the variable region of the heavy chain. (wikipedia.org)