• airway
  • Birds have a disproportionately large anatomic dead space (they have a longer and wider trachea than mammals the same size), reducing the airway resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • spongy
  • However, in most larger organisms, which have a small surface-area to volume ratios, specialised structures with convoluted surfaces such as gills, pulmonary alveoli and spongy mesophyll provide the large area needed for effective gas exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the case with the alveoli, which form the inner surface of the mammalian lung, the spongy mesophyll, which is found inside the leaves of some kinds of plant, or the gills of those molluscs that have them, which are found in the mantle cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • surfactant
  • Type 2 pneumocytes are also important because they secrete pulmonary surfactant(PS), which consists 80-90% of phospholipids [(phosophatidylcholine(PC), phosphatidyglycerol(PG), phosphaditylinositol (PI)] and 5-10% of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, AND SP-D). PS is synthesized as lamellar bodies, which are structures consisting of closely packed bilayers that are secreted and then undergo transformation into a morphological form called tubular myelin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surfactant protein A1 (SP-A1), also known as Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A1 (PSP-A) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFTPA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with SP-A2, they are the most abundant proteins of pulmonary surfactant. (wikipedia.org)
  • airways
  • Lung damage and inflammation in the large airways (i.e, the trachea and main bronchial tube) results in chronic bronchitis, a precursor to COPD. (caring.com)
  • In physiology, dead space is the volume of air which is inhaled that does not take part in the gas exchange, either because it (1) remains in the conducting airways, or (2) reaches alveoli that are not perfused or poorly perfused. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the flexibility of the trachea and smaller conducting airways, their overall volume (i.e. the anatomic dead space) changes little with bronchoconstriction or when breathing hard during exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quantity of CO2 exhaled from the healthy alveoli will be diluted by the air in the conducting airways and by air from alveoli that are poorly perfused. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary hygiene, (formerly referred to as pulmonary toilet) is a set of methods used to clear mucus and secretions from the airways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods used for pulmonary hygiene include suctioning of the airways, chest physiotherapy, blow bottles, and nasotracheal suction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bronchoscopy, in which a tube is inserted into the airways so that an examiner can view them, can be used therapeutically as part of pulmonary hygiene. (wikipedia.org)
  • A system such as this creates dead space, a volume of air (about 150 ml in the adult human) that fills the airways after exhalation and is breathed back into the alveoli before environmental air reaches them. (wikipedia.org)
  • capillary
  • The diffusion capacity for oxygen ( D L O 2 ) {\displaystyle (D_{L_{O_{2}}})} is the proportionality factor relating the rate of oxygen uptake into the lung to the oxygen gradient between the capillary blood and the alveoli (per Fick's laws of diffusion). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Colloid osmotic pressure in pulmonary interstitial tissue is about 14 mm Hg compared to less than 7 mm Hg in peripheral tissues. (brainscape.com)
  • This causes vasoconstriction in pulmonary vessels and vasoDILATION in other tissues. (brainscape.com)
  • Subcutaneous emphysema can be caused by medical procedures and medical conditions that cause the pressure in the alveoli of the lung to be higher than that in the tissues outside of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lung is the main site of SFTPA1 synthesis, but SFTPA1 mRNA expression has also been detected in the trachea, prostate, pancreas, thymus, colon, eye, salivary gland and other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • diffusion
  • In addition, gas transport is only diffusion limited in extreme cases, such as for oxygen uptake at very low ambient oxygen or very high pulmonary blood flow[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Pulmonary shunting causes the blood supply leaving a shunted area of the lung to have lower levels of oxygen and higher levels of carbon dioxide (i.e., the normal gas exchange does not occur). (wikipedia.org)
  • It can also occur spontaneously due to rupture of the alveoli with dramatic presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • In pathological conditions such as pulmonary contusion, the shunt fraction is significantly greater and even breathing 100% oxygen does not fully oxygenate the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • P A O 2 {\displaystyle P_{A_{O_{2}}}} is the partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • As can be measured on a CT scan, a diameter of more than 29 mm diameter is often used as a cut-off to indicate pulmonary hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretions
  • 6. The tracheostomy tube device of claim 1, further comprising a flexible conduit along both the tube and the balloon connects the posterior, or cranial, aspect of the balloon, within the first direction inside the trachea, to the environment, such that secretions eventually accumulating cranially to the tracheal stoma can be removed. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • enters
  • The alveoli are the dead end terminals of the "tree", meaning that any air that enters them has to exit via the same route. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • Although the complete lifecycle of M. laryngeus is not fully known due to the rareness of the parasite in humans, the parasite is thought to adopt a lifecycle similar to Syngamus trachea, the common gapeworm infection in birds that was initially thought to be mammomonogamiasis. (wikipedia.org)