• bacterium
  • the bacterium is unable to cause disease without this toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell wall of Bacillus is a structure on the outside of the cell that forms the second barrier between the bacterium and the environment, and at the same time maintains the rod shape and withstands the pressure generated by the cell's turgor. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial toxin
  • Molecular model of the lesion that the bacterial toxin yatakemycin forms on DNA. (phys.org)
  • A team of Vanderbilt University researchers have worked out the molecular details that explain how this bacterial toxin-yatakemycin (YTM)-prevents DNA replication. (phys.org)
  • No tests were done to confirm which pathogen caused the illness: bacterial toxin illnesses are typically short-lived and by the time people seek care - if they do at all - it is too far from exposure to test. (marlerblog.com)
  • Anthrax
  • The pXO1 plasmid (182 kb) contains the genes that encode for the anthrax toxin components: pag (protective antigen, PA), lef (lethal factor, LF), and cya (edema factor, EF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The PAI also contains genes which encode a transcriptional activator AtxA and the repressor PagR, both of which regulate the expression of the anthrax toxin genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • similarity
  • Based on the structural similarity of Cry6Aa to other toxins, the mechanism of action of the toxin was probed and its ability to form pores in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans was demonstrated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • proteins
  • These proteins are unrelated to other insecticidal toxins at the level of their primary sequences and the structure and function of these proteins has been poorly studied to date. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This has inhibited our understanding of these toxins and their mode of action, along with our ability to manipulate the proteins to alter their activity to our advantage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While much is known of the structure and function of the three-domain toxins [ 4 ] and the structure of a protoxin form has recently been published [ 5 ], very little is known of the non-three-domain Cry proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • structural
  • It is possible that the common structural and functional properties of these toxins indicate that the Hbl/Nhe and ClyA families of toxins constitute a superfamily of pore-forming cytotoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • biofilm formation
  • P. aeruginosa relies on quorom sensing via production of lactones N-butanoyl-l-homoserine (C4-HSL) and N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-HSL (3-oxo-C12-HSL) to regulate swarming, toxin and protease production, and proper biofilm formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Food
  • In the 2010s, examination of warning letters issued by the US Food and Drug Administration issued to pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities addressing facility microbial contamination revealed that the most common contaminant was B. cereus. (wikipedia.org)
  • At 30 °C (86 °F), a population of B. cereus can double in as little as 20 minutes or as long as 3 hours, depending on the food product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacillus cereus causes two types of food poisoning. (dmoztools.net)
  • binds
  • First, the toxin binds to a binding site on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal C2-like PLAT domain binds calcium and allows the toxin to bind to the phospholipid head-groups on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • bulge
  • Under the microscope, the Bacillus cells appear as rods, and a substantial portion of the cells usually contain oval endospores at one end, making it bulge. (wikipedia.org)
  • insects
  • When insects ingest toxin crystals, their alkaline digestive tracts denature the insoluble crystals, making them soluble and thus amenable to being cut with proteases found in the insect gut, which liberate the toxin from the crystal. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Elucidation of both the structure and the pore-forming mechanism of action of Cry6Aa now opens the way to more detailed analysis of toxin specificity and the development of new toxin variants with novel activities. (biomedcentral.com)