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  • vitro
  • In addition to the presentations by the main project partners, external speakers were invited to give lectures on relevant topics, both in the field of neurotoxicity and, more generally, on the applicability of hESCs in the development of advanced in vitro tests. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • A new article by scientists at Unilever, a corporate member of the HTPC, describes several areas of safety science in which they are using a pathway-based approach to replace traditional animal tests with a combination of human cell-based in vitro assays and computational models. (humantoxicologyproject.org)
  • Two major alternatives to in vivo animal testing are in vitro cell culture techniques and in silico computer simulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2010, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) published the Test Guideline 439 which describes the new procedure for in vitro hazard identification of irritant chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interaction can be quickly and accurately tested in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides systematic reviews, the core evidence-based tool, such approaches include inter alia the establishment and universal use of a common ontology, justified design and rigorous conduct of studies, consistently structured and detailed reporting of experimental evidence, probabilistic uncertainty and risk assessment, and the development of synthesis methodology to integrate evidence from diverse evidence streams, e.g. from human observational studies, animal studies, in vitro studies and in silico modeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemicals already shown to have adverse effects in vitro are not currently used in a Draize test, thereby reducing the number and severity of tests that are carried out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microtox is an in vitro testing system which uses bioluminescent bacteria (Allivibrio fischeri, formerly known as Vibrio fischeri) to detect toxic substances in different substrates such as water, air, soils and sediments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Develop
  • The ESNATS project was an FP7 European Integrated Project, running from 2008 to 2013, the aim of which was to develop a novel toxicity testing platform based on embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and in particular, human ESC (hESCs), to accelerate drug development, reduce related R&D costs, and propose a powerful alternative to animal tests in the spirit of the Three Rs principles. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • In 1954, fallout from a nuclear weapons test on Bikini Island in the South Pacific caused Marshall Islanders to develop burns of the feet from β radiation, a prompt effect that is only skin deep. (aappublications.org)
  • analyses
  • Toxicity-test results are most effective when used as a complement to chemical analyses, hydrologic measurements, and other biological monitoring. (usgs.gov)
  • If sufficient data is generated, minimum significant differences (MSDs) are calculated using power analyses and applied to toxicity tests to determine the difference between statistical difference and ecological relevance. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • The toxicity of salicylates does not always correlate well with serum levels, and the levels are often less helpful in patients with long term exposure. (medscape.com)
  • A Tissue residue approach to toxicity testing is considered a more direct and less variable measure of chemical exposure and is less dependent on external environmental factors than measuring the concentration of a chemical in the exposure media. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the aforementioned advantages of tissue residue use, the U.S. EPA also states that this approach explicitly considers exposure through diet, will support identification and investigation of a chemical's mode of action, incorporate the effects of an organism's metabolism on accumulation and allow for experimental verification between lab and field studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) Phototoxicity Test, approved by the OECD, detects the viability of 3T3 cells after exposure to a chemical in the presence or absence of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • This involves screening directed towards finding new natural products that inhibit a specific target, such as an enzyme only found in the target pathogen, rather than tests to show general inhibition of a culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • This change can be used to calculate a percent inhibition of Allivibrio fischeri that directly correlates to toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Draize
  • This method has been accepted by the EU and is intended to replace the Draize rabbit skin irritation test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its controversial nature, the use of the Draize test in the U.S. and Europe has declined in recent years and is sometimes modified so that anaesthetics are administered and lower doses of the test substances used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following year Draize joined the FDA, and was soon promoted to head of the Dermal and Ocular Toxicity Branch where he was charged with developing methods for testing the side effects of cosmetic products. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2004 study by the U.S. Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods analyzed the modern Draize skin test. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the British Research Defence Society, the Draize eye test is now a "very mild test," in which small amounts of substances are used and are washed out of the eye at the first sign of irritation. (wikipedia.org)
  • environmental
  • Finally, we critically evaluate the contribution that metabolomics has made to the environmental sciences, and highlight and discuss recommendations to advance our understanding of the environment, ecology and evolution using a metabolomics approach. (springer.com)
  • Microtox was developed by Azur Environmental (formerly Microbics Corporation) in 1979 as a cost effective alternative to toxicity tests available at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • sediments
  • Since its inception, Microtox has become a standard method for testing the toxicity of water as well as other substrates such as soils and sediments. (wikipedia.org)
  • This analyser is a temperature-controlled, self-calibrating biosensor measuring system that uses the bioluminescence of Allivibrio fischeri to determine the toxicity of contaminated water, or elutriates of contaminated soils and sediments. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • A wide variety of toxicity-test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. (usgs.gov)
  • Biochemical testing methods, which have been developing rapidly in recent years, are likely to be among the most useful procedures for large-scale water-quality assessments. (usgs.gov)
  • One of the most informative approaches to toxicity testing is to combine biochemical tests with other test methods in a 'battery of tests' that is diversified enough to characterize different types of toxicants and different trophic levels. (usgs.gov)
  • Another approach has been the development of test methods that use cultured human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • to support and fund better methods of scientific and medical research for testing products and curing disease which replace the use of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Toxicity tests often are not sensitive enough to enable detection of most contaminant problems in the natural environment. (usgs.gov)
  • include
  • In addition to the tests listed above, laboratory studies for altered mental status may include serum osmolality, alcohol, and ketones. (medscape.com)
  • Results
  • The main achievements and results of the ESNATS project (Embryonic Stem Cell-based Novel Alternative Testing Strategies) were presented at the final project conference that was held on 15 September 2013, the day before the traditional EUSAAT (European Society for Alternatives to Animal Testing) Congress in Linz, Austria. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • However, meaningful interpretation of ambient test results depends on the existence of accompanying chemical analysis of the ambient media. (usgs.gov)
  • Microtox Continuous Toxicity Monitor (CTM) is a site-specific Microtox analyser that continuously measures the toxicity of a water source and provides results instantly. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Human skin equivalent tests can be used to replace animal-based corrosive and irritative studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • A skinpatch test has been designed and is used in Canada to measure development of rashes, inflammation, swelling or abnormal tissue growth on human volunteers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr Coleman's team has identified three human cell lines which might act as a suitable model for the astrocytes - in preliminary tests all behave similarly to astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • When choosing tissue, a scientist needs to consider: mode and mechanism of action of chemical being tested, site of toxic action for the chemical and species combination being studied and strength of the tissue residue-response relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is done through conducting field-based tests, which analyze changes in benthic community structures focusing on changes in number of species, abundance, and percentage of major taxonomic groups (Chapman, 1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • The test subject is commonly an albino rabbit, though other species are used too, including dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • strongly
  • Confirmation by means of gas chromatography and/or mass spectrometry is strongly recommended when test findings are positive for amphetamines. (medscape.com)
  • Alternatives
  • All individuals affiliated with the organization are volunteers, except those serving in the organisation's secretariat, which is sponsored by the Johns Hopkins University's Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT). (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Also known as the portable version of the Microtox Model 500, this device provides simple testing, uses small sample sizes, and is a cost effective approach to analyzing water samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perform
  • Perform pregnancy tests in women of childbearing age. (medscape.com)
  • These cells may play a crucial role in neurodegenerative disease but there has been no model on which to perform tests - but this may be about to change. (wikipedia.org)
  • serious
  • They found that tests would: Misidentify a serious irritant as safe: 0-0.01% Misidentify a mild irritant as safe: 3.7%-5.5% Misidentify a serious irritant as a mild irritant: 10.3%-38.7% According to the American National Anti-Vivisection Society, solutions of products are applied directly into the animals' eyes, which can cause "intense burning, itching and pain. (wikipedia.org)