• vitro
  • A new article by scientists at Unilever, a corporate member of the HTPC, describes several areas of safety science in which they are using a pathway-based approach to replace traditional animal tests with a combination of human cell-based in vitro assays and computational models. (humantoxicologyproject.org)
  • Two major alternatives to in vivo animal testing are in vitro cell culture techniques and in silico computer simulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2010, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) published the Test Guideline 439 which describes the new procedure for in vitro hazard identification of irritant chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interaction can be quickly and accurately tested in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides systematic reviews, the core evidence-based tool, such approaches include inter alia the establishment and universal use of a common ontology, justified design and rigorous conduct of studies, consistently structured and detailed reporting of experimental evidence, probabilistic uncertainty and risk assessment, and the development of synthesis methodology to integrate evidence from diverse evidence streams, e.g. from human observational studies, animal studies, in vitro studies and in silico modeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemicals already shown to have adverse effects in vitro are not currently used in a Draize test, thereby reducing the number and severity of tests that are carried out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Draize
  • This method has been accepted by the EU and is intended to replace the Draize rabbit skin irritation test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its controversial nature, the use of the Draize test in the U.S. and Europe has declined in recent years and is sometimes modified so that anaesthetics are administered and lower doses of the test substances used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following year Draize joined the FDA, and was soon promoted to head of the Dermal and Ocular Toxicity Branch where he was charged with developing methods for testing the side effects of cosmetic products. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2004 study by the U.S. Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods analyzed the modern Draize skin test. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the British Research Defence Society, the Draize eye test is now a "very mild test," in which small amounts of substances are used and are washed out of the eye at the first sign of irritation. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • In addition to the aforementioned advantages of tissue residue use, the U.S. EPA also states that this approach explicitly considers exposure through diet, will support identification and investigation of a chemical's mode of action, incorporate the effects of an organism's metabolism on accumulation and allow for experimental verification between lab and field studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental research with animals is usually conducted in universities, medical schools, pharmaceutical companies, defense establishments and commercial facilities that provide animal-testing services to industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • he introduced animal testing as an experimental method of testing surgical procedures before applying them to human patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • When choosing tissue, a scientist needs to consider: mode and mechanism of action of chemical being tested, site of toxic action for the chemical and species combination being studied and strength of the tissue residue-response relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is done through conducting field-based tests, which analyze changes in benthic community structures focusing on changes in number of species, abundance, and percentage of major taxonomic groups (Chapman, 1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • The test subject is commonly an albino rabbit, though other species are used too, including dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • A Tissue residue approach to toxicity testing is considered a more direct and less variable measure of chemical exposure and is less dependent on external environmental factors than measuring the concentration of a chemical in the exposure media. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) Phototoxicity Test, approved by the OECD, detects the viability of 3T3 cells after exposure to a chemical in the presence or absence of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • To conduct such a screen, isolates of many different microorganisms are cultured and then tested for production of diffusible products that inhibit the growth of test organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results
  • However, meaningful interpretation of ambient test results depends on the existence of accompanying chemical analysis of the ambient media. (usgs.gov)
  • often
  • Toxicity tests often are not sensitive enough to enable detection of most contaminant problems in the natural environment. (usgs.gov)
  • strongly
  • Confirmation by means of gas chromatography and/or mass spectrometry is strongly recommended when test findings are positive for amphetamines. (medscape.com)
  • environmental
  • Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water-quality assessments. (usgs.gov)
  • Perform
  • Perform pregnancy tests in women of childbearing age. (medscape.com)
  • These cells may play a crucial role in neurodegenerative disease but there has been no model on which to perform tests - but this may be about to change. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • This involves screening directed towards finding new natural products that inhibit a specific target, such as an enzyme only found in the target pathogen, rather than tests to show general inhibition of a culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Animals are typically reused after a "wash out" period during which all traces of the tested product are allowed to disperse from the test site. (wikipedia.org)
  • animal
  • In education, animal testing is sometimes a component of biology or psychology courses. (wikipedia.org)
  • All individuals affiliated with the organization are volunteers, except those serving in the organisation's secretariat, which is sponsored by the Johns Hopkins University's Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT). (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • They found that tests would: Misidentify a serious irritant as safe: 0-0.01% Misidentify a mild irritant as safe: 3.7%-5.5% Misidentify a serious irritant as a mild irritant: 10.3%-38.7% According to the American National Anti-Vivisection Society, solutions of products are applied directly into the animals' eyes, which can cause "intense burning, itching and pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • A skinpatch test has been designed and is used in Canada to measure development of rashes, inflammation, swelling or abnormal tissue growth on human volunteers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr Coleman's team has identified three human cell lines which might act as a suitable model for the astrocytes - in preliminary tests all behave similarly to astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • field
  • This approach can be contrasted with field studies in which animals are observed in their natural environments. (wikipedia.org)