• metabolic
  • In addition to vital nutrient deficiencies, toxic metal excesses, hypoglycemia, chronic yeast infection, central nervous system allergies, this article discusses the effects of stimulants in the diet, congenital imbalances, the effects of medications, and a faster-than-normal metabolic rate. (drlwilson.com)
  • Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is a precursor of coenzymes including pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), which accelerates the metabolic degradation of ethanol and prevents adenosine triphosphate (ATP) inactivation by acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formate is toxic because it inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, causing hypoxia at the cellular level, and metabolic acidosis, among a variety of other metabolic disturbances. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shared metabolic rate-limiting steps thus leads to slowed metabolism and clearance for both compounds including ethanol's known toxic metabolite acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimentally it has been demonstrated that the metabolic process involves the production of pyruvate from lactate, followed by decarboxylation to acetaldehyde which then is hydrogenated to ethanol as the major metabolic end product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcoholism
  • A drug sometimes used in the management of alcoholism, which causes severe nausea and vomiting, sweating, breathlessness, headache and chest pain if any alcohol is taken after it has been given. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Conventional drug or alcohol rehabilitation such as 12-step programs or Antabuse to treat alcoholism may not work for the elderly who have some cognitive impairment, Dr. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ALDH2 genetic variation has been closely correlated with alcohol dependence, with heterozygotes at a reduced risk compared to wild type homozygotes and individual homozygotes for the ALDH2-deficient at a very low risk for alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some debate over whether the main cause is the direct toxic effect of alcohol itself or whether the disease is a result of alcoholism-related malnutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7% alcohol) = 2.4 standard drinks The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) define the term "binge drinking" as a pattern of drinking that brings a person's blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to 0.08 grams percent or above. (wikipedia.org)
  • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), Alcohol Alert (28). (wikipedia.org)
  • The deficiency is manifested by slow acetaldehyde removal, with low alcohol tolerance perhaps leading to a lower frequency of alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of increased alcohol availability led to alcoholism and abuse by those able to acquire it, resulting in lower reproductive fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • dehydration
  • Since this decreases total blood volume and, in extreme cases, can result in dehydration, it's not uncommon to postulate that alcohol and caffeine would lower, rather than raise, blood pressure. (livestrong.com)
  • effects
  • However, iron is also toxic at these doses, and one cannot stay on a dose of 80 mg/daily for a young child for too long without causing other side effects. (drlwilson.com)
  • The method is a form of aversion therapy and is not without danger of collapse and death from the toxic effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Both caffeine and alcohol have physiological and psychological effects upon the body. (livestrong.com)
  • The University of Maryland Medical Center suggests that those who drink frequently may have a more difficult time controlling blood pressure, and that this effect may have to do with alcohol inhibiting the effects of pressure-reducing medications. (livestrong.com)
  • One example [of fast stage one & slow stage two effects] involves alcohol metabolism. (prohealth.com)
  • Generally, the body processes approximately one alcoholic drink per hour, so drinking many drinks over a short period increases the risk of a hangover once the intoxicating effects of alcohol are no longer felt. (news-medical.net)
  • Widespread human and aquatic organism exposure to Phe has been reported, but the toxic effects of Phe and potential mechanisms are unclear. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Alcohol tolerance refers to the bodily responses to the functional effects of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reduced sensitivity requires that higher quantities of alcohol be consumed in order to achieve the same effects as before tolerance was established. (wikipedia.org)
  • The negative effects of alcohol during pregnancy have been described since ancient times. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, certain genetic factors can amplify the negative effects of acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • however there is a study suggesting that 1,4-butanediol may have potential alcohol-like pharmacological effects that are not due to this conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • This contradicts the hypothesis that 1,4-butanediol having inherent alcohol-like pharmacological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anxiolytic effects are diminished and side effects increased when used in combination with alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol has a variety of short-term and long-term adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adverse effects of alcohol on health are most important when it is used in excessive quantities or with heavy frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol works in the brain primarily by increasing the effects of a neurotransmitter called γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pleasurable effects of alcohol ingestion are the result of increased levels of dopamine and endogenous opioids in the reward pathways of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • ingestion
  • Chronic ingestion of alcohol can also mess with your digestion, making it difficult for your body to absorb nutrients like amino acids, B vitamins, and impairs protein synthesis. (anabolicminds.com)
  • mechanisms
  • The mechanisms by which alcohol and caffeine increase blood pressure still aren't well understood. (livestrong.com)
  • While the mechanisms whereby alcohol and caffeine increase blood pressure may not be well known, the fact that an increase occurs is recognized in the medical community. (livestrong.com)
  • individuals
  • While caffeine is a well-known stimulant that individuals often use to increase feelings of alertness and attention, alcohol is an inhibition-lowering drug and a relaxant. (livestrong.com)
  • The American Stroke Association notes that most patients appear to experience increased blood pressure with caffeine use, while the American Academy of Family Practitioners suggests that individuals with high blood pressure limit alcohol consumption. (livestrong.com)
  • In a 2008 article published on the website Science Daily, reporters note that a recent study conducted in England suggests that one mechanism for why alcohol affects blood pressure--particularly in certain individuals--might be genetic. (livestrong.com)
  • The study found that these individuals also appear to experience much higher blood pressure after alcohol consumption. (livestrong.com)
  • There is evidence that providing individuals with adequate vitamins improves symptoms despite continued alcohol intake, indicating that vitamin deficiency may be a major factor in the development and progression of alcoholic polyneuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most severe condition is called fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which refers to individuals who have a specific set of birth defects and neurodevelopmental disorders characteristic of the diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS) refers to individuals with a known, or highly suspected, history of prenatal alcohol exposure who have alcohol-related physical and neurodevelopmental deficits that don't meet the full criteria for FAS. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key of FASD can vary between individuals exposed to alcohol during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metabolized acetaldehyde in the blood, which is six times higher than in individuals without the mutation, has shown to be a carcinogen in lab animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms occur typically after the intoxicating effect of the alcohol begins to wear off, generally the morning after a night of heavy drinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • While drinking small amounts of alcohol does not cause abnormalities in the face, it may cause behavioral issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • substance
  • The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol was originally used for the very fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb 2S 3, hence the essence or "spirit" of this substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Utilized in the bacterial degradation of toxic aromatic compounds, the enzyme's crystal structure indicates that intermediates are shuttled directly between active sites through a hydrophobic intermediary channel, providing an unreactive environment in which to move the reactive acetaldehyde intermediate from the aldolase active site to the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhazes (854 CE - 925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, and philosopher who discovered numerous compounds and chemicals including "alcohol" by developing several chemical instruments and methods of distillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • Detoxing foot pads turn brown overnight with what manufacturers claim is toxic sludge drawn from your body. (theguardian.com)
  • Both caffeine and alcohol are well known to be diuretics, meaning that they cause the body to expel more water via the urinary system. (livestrong.com)
  • However, if users are able to practice some moderation with alcohol, a drink or two on occasion will not effectively poison your body and make you irreparably fat. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Alcoholic polyneuropathy (A.K.A alcohol leg) is a neurological disorder in which multiple peripheral nerves throughout the body malfunction simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, men are, on average, heavier than women but it is not strictly accurate to say that the water content of a person alone is responsible for the dissolution of alcohol within the body, because alcohol does dissolve in fatty tissue as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, most calculations of alcohol to body mass simply use the weight of the individual, and not specifically his/her water content. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is colloquially known as "face flush", a condition where the body metabolizes alcohol nearly 100-times less efficiently into acetaldehyde, a toxic metabolite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequences of the alcohol induced redox changes in the human body include increased triglyceride production, increased amino acid catabolism, inhibition of the citric acid cycle, lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, hyperuricemia, disturbance in cortisol and androgen metabolism and increased fibrogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol also has toxic and unpleasant actions in the body, many of which are mediated by its byproduct acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of ethanol in the body is typically quantified by blood alcohol content (BAC), which is here taken as weight of ethanol per unit volume of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • In the UK Afro Caribbean's and in the US black patients are less likely to abuse alcohol and illicit drugs. (wikibooks.org)
  • better source needed] Alcohol is known to make blood less likely to clot, reducing risk of heart attack and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.g., methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. (wikipedia.org)