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  • Toxicity
  • Protection against acetaldehyde toxicity (i.e. anesthesia and lethality) was studied in rats by oral intubation of test compounds 30-45 minutes prior to oral intubation of a standardized oral LD 90 dose (18 millimoles/kologram) of acetaldehyde. (springer.com)
  • H. Sprince, C.M. Parker, G.G. Smith and L.J. Gonzales , Protection against Acetaldehyde Toxicity in the Rat by l -Cysteine, Thiamin, and l -2-Methylthiazolidine-4-Carboxylic Acid, Agents and Actions 4 , 125-130 (1974). (springer.com)
  • H. Sprince, C.M. Parker, G.G. Smith , and L.J. Gonzales , Protectants against Acetaldehyde Toxicity: Sulfhydryl Compounds and Ascorbic Acid , Fed. (springer.com)
  • H. Sprince, C.M. Parker, G.G. Smith and L.J. Gonzales , Protection against Acetaldehyde Toxicity and Lethality by l -Cysteine Plus Thiamin, Fed. (springer.com)
  • Metaldehyde has a toxicity profile identical to that for acetaldehyde, being mildly toxic and a respiratory irritant at the 50 ppm level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to this toxicity, pet owners may want to investigate alternatives which are not as toxic to pets, such as Ferric Sodium EDTA or Iron(III) phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • About 25% of the ethanol alcohol humans drink is oxidized to acetaldehyde in this way. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, various haplotypes arising from this mutation are more concentrated in regions near Eastern China, a region also known for its low alcohol tolerance and dependence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol can be addictive to humans, as in alcoholism, and can result in dependence and withdrawal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol has been produced and consumed by humans for its psychoactive effects for almost 10,000 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • In addition to vital nutrient deficiencies, toxic metal excesses, hypoglycemia, chronic yeast infection, central nervous system allergies, this article discusses the effects of stimulants in the diet, congenital imbalances, the effects of medications, and a faster-than-normal metabolic rate. (drlwilson.com)
  • Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is a precursor of coenzymes including pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), which accelerates the metabolic degradation of ethanol and prevents adenosine triphosphate (ATP) inactivation by acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formate is toxic because it inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, causing hypoxia at the cellular level, and metabolic acidosis, among a variety of other metabolic disturbances. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shared metabolic rate-limiting steps thus leads to slowed metabolism and clearance for both compounds including ethanol's known toxic metabolite acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimentally it has been demonstrated that the metabolic process involves the production of pyruvate from lactate, followed by decarboxylation to acetaldehyde which then is hydrogenated to ethanol as the major metabolic end product. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcoholism
  • A drug sometimes used in the management of alcoholism, which causes severe nausea and vomiting, sweating, breathlessness, headache and chest pain if any alcohol is taken after it has been given. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Conventional drug or alcohol rehabilitation such as 12-step programs or Antabuse to treat alcoholism may not work for the elderly who have some cognitive impairment, Dr. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ALDH2 genetic variation has been closely correlated with alcohol dependence, with heterozygotes at a reduced risk compared to wild type homozygotes and individual homozygotes for the ALDH2-deficient at a very low risk for alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some debate over whether the main cause is the direct toxic effect of alcohol itself or whether the disease is a result of alcoholism-related malnutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), Alcohol Alert (28). (wikipedia.org)
  • The deficiency is manifested by slow acetaldehyde removal, with low alcohol tolerance perhaps leading to a lower frequency of alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of increased alcohol availability led to alcoholism and abuse by those able to acquire it, resulting in lower reproductive fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic
  • Our findings could point the way to a possible build-up of natural protection against the chronic body insult of acetaldehyde arising from heavy drinking of alcohol and heavy smoking of cigarettes. (springer.com)
  • Chronic ingestion of alcohol can also mess with your digestion, making it difficult for your body to absorb nutrients like amino acids, B vitamins, and impairs protein synthesis. (anabolicminds.com)
  • dehydration
  • When alcohol blocks the release of this hormone, the kidneys get leaky and stop reabsorbing as much water - resulting in tons of pee and dehydration. (businessinsider.com)
  • Since this decreases total blood volume and, in extreme cases, can result in dehydration, it's not uncommon to postulate that alcohol and caffeine would lower, rather than raise, blood pressure. (livestrong.com)
  • molecule
  • As described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is often indicated using the "hydroxy-" prefix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concentrations
  • Though this feature is not adaptive from an energy point of view, by making alcohol in such high concentrations so that they would be toxic to other organisms, yeast cells could effectively eliminate their competition. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Alcohol enhances these inhibitory effects, resulting in sluggish movements and reaction times that can make you lose coordination, Psychology Today explains. (businessinsider.com)
  • An estimated one out of twenty people have an alcohol flush reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • intermediate
  • Utilized in the bacterial degradation of toxic aromatic compounds, the enzyme's crystal structure indicates that intermediates are shuttled directly between active sites through a hydrophobic intermediary channel, providing an unreactive environment in which to move the reactive acetaldehyde intermediate from the aldolase active site to the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this pathway, the intermediate structures can be toxic, and health problems arise when those intermediates cannot be cleared. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • While alcohol is legal, and some have evidence shows that wine may have positive health effects, alcohol also has immediate effects on the body and brain, and long-term, irreversible health effects. (businessinsider.com)
  • However, iron is also toxic at these doses, and one cannot stay on a dose of 80 mg/daily for a young child for too long without causing other side effects. (drlwilson.com)
  • T. N. James and E.S. Bear , Effects of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde on the Heart , Am. Heart J. 74 , 243-255 (1967). (springer.com)
  • The method is a form of aversion therapy and is not without danger of collapse and death from the toxic effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Both caffeine and alcohol have physiological and psychological effects upon the body. (livestrong.com)
  • The University of Maryland Medical Center suggests that those who drink frequently may have a more difficult time controlling blood pressure, and that this effect may have to do with alcohol inhibiting the effects of pressure-reducing medications. (livestrong.com)
  • One example [of fast stage one & slow stage two effects] involves alcohol metabolism. (prohealth.com)
  • Alcohol tolerance refers to the bodily responses to the functional effects of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reduced sensitivity requires that higher quantities of alcohol be consumed in order to achieve the same effects as before tolerance was established. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, certain genetic factors can amplify the negative effects of acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • however there is a study suggesting that 1,4-butanediol may have potential alcohol-like pharmacological effects that are not due to this conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • This contradicts the hypothesis that 1,4-butanediol having inherent alcohol-like pharmacological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anxiolytic effects are diminished and side effects increased when used in combination with alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol has a variety of short-term and long-term adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adverse effects of alcohol on health are most important when it is used in excessive quantities or with heavy frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol works in the brain primarily by increasing the effects of a neurotransmitter called γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pleasurable effects of alcohol ingestion are the result of increased levels of dopamine and endogenous opioids in the reward pathways of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • When you take alcohol into your body - no matter if it is in the form of wine, hard liquor, or beer - it all goes to the same place: Your stomach, then your small intestine. (businessinsider.com)
  • The other part is how your body handles the alcohol. (businessinsider.com)
  • Detoxing foot pads turn brown overnight with what manufacturers claim is toxic sludge drawn from your body. (theguardian.com)
  • Both caffeine and alcohol are well known to be diuretics, meaning that they cause the body to expel more water via the urinary system. (livestrong.com)
  • However, if users are able to practice some moderation with alcohol, a drink or two on occasion will not effectively poison your body and make you irreparably fat. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Alcoholic polyneuropathy (A.K.A alcohol leg) is a neurological disorder in which multiple peripheral nerves throughout the body malfunction simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct alcohol tolerance is largely dependent on body size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher body masses and the prevalence of high levels of alcohol dehydrogenase in an individual increase alcohol tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is colloquially known as "face flush", a condition where the body metabolizes alcohol nearly 100-times less efficiently into acetaldehyde, a toxic metabolite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequences of the alcohol induced redox changes in the human body include increased triglyceride production, increased amino acid catabolism, inhibition of the citric acid cycle, lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, hyperuricemia, disturbance in cortisol and androgen metabolism and increased fibrogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of ethanol in the body is typically quantified by blood alcohol content (BAC), which is here taken as weight of ethanol per unit volume of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • In the UK Afro Caribbean's and in the US black patients are less likely to abuse alcohol and illicit drugs. (wikibooks.org)
  • And if it sounds like a lot of your favorites are on the "eat less" list, consider that alcohol is another problematic consumable. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • better source needed] Alcohol is known to make blood less likely to clot, reducing risk of heart attack and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.g., methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Rhazes (854 CE - 925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, and philosopher who discovered numerous compounds and chemicals including "alcohol" by developing several chemical instruments and methods of distillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • residue
  • As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • While caffeine is a well-known stimulant that individuals often use to increase feelings of alertness and attention, alcohol is an inhibition-lowering drug and a relaxant. (livestrong.com)
  • The American Stroke Association notes that most patients appear to experience increased blood pressure with caffeine use, while the American Academy of Family Practitioners suggests that individuals with high blood pressure limit alcohol consumption. (livestrong.com)
  • In a 2008 article published on the website Science Daily, reporters note that a recent study conducted in England suggests that one mechanism for why alcohol affects blood pressure--particularly in certain individuals--might be genetic. (livestrong.com)
  • The study found that these individuals also appear to experience much higher blood pressure after alcohol consumption. (livestrong.com)
  • There is evidence that providing individuals with adequate vitamins improves symptoms despite continued alcohol intake, indicating that vitamin deficiency may be a major factor in the development and progression of alcoholic polyneuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metabolized acetaldehyde in the blood, which is six times higher than in individuals without the mutation, has shown to be a carcinogen in lab animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • The mechanisms by which alcohol and caffeine increase blood pressure still aren't well understood. (livestrong.com)
  • While the mechanisms whereby alcohol and caffeine increase blood pressure may not be well known, the fact that an increase occurs is recognized in the medical community. (livestrong.com)
  • occur
  • The symptoms occur typically after the intoxicating effect of the alcohol begins to wear off, generally the morning after a night of heavy drinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • hangover
  • Metaldehyde acts on the pest by contact or ingestion, and the aqueous environment inside the pest's cells readily hydrolyzes metaldehyde into acetaldehyde, the molecule associated with an alcohol hangover. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the causes of a hangover are still poorly understood, several factors are known to be involved including acetaldehyde accumulation, changes in the immune system and glucose metabolism, dehydration, metabolic acidosis, disturbed prostaglandin synthesis, increased cardiac output, vasodilation, sleep deprivation and malnutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though many possible remedies and folk cures have been suggested, there is no compelling evidence to suggest that any are effective for preventing or treating alcohol hangover. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avoiding alcohol or drinking in moderation are the most effective ways to avoid a hangover. (wikipedia.org)
  • The socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover include workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity and poor academic achievement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol hangover symptoms develop when blood alcohol concentration falls considerably and peak when it returns to almost zero. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drowsiness and impaired cognitive function are the two dominant features of alcohol hangover. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several pathophysiological changes may give rise to the alcohol hangover including increased levels of acetaldehyde, hormonal alterations of the cytokine pathways and decrease of the availability of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • We also found that when individuals - men or women - drink large amounts of alcohol chronically, there is a decrease in this ADH activity, resulting in lesser first-pass metabolism and increased blood levels for a given dose. (attcnetwork.org)
  • While low doses of alcohol have some healthful benefits, the intake of more than three standard drinks per day on a regular basis enhances the risk for cancer and vascular disease, and alcohol use disorders decrease the life span by about 10 years. (mhmedical.com)
  • alcoholic beverages
  • Drinking establishments, such as bars and nightclubs, revolve primarily around the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages, and parties, festivals, and social gatherings commonly feature alcohol consumption as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • stomach
  • When people drink alcohol, a portion of it is metabolized in the stomach before it enters the blood stream. (attcnetwork.org)
  • This process is referred to as 'first-pass metabolism,' because some of the alcohol is removed by metabolism on its 'first pass' through the stomach. (attcnetwork.org)
  • Alcohol is absorbed from mucous membranes of the mouth and esophagus (in small amounts), from the stomach and large bowel (in modest amounts), and from the proximal portion of the small intestine (the major site). (mhmedical.com)
  • liver
  • Alcohol liver disease (ALD) accounted for four fifths of all chronic diseases in Ireland in 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • Death rate amongst current drinkers was higher for 'alcohol augmentable' disease such as liver disease and oral cancers, but these deaths were much less common than cardiovascular and respiratory deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • It has been known for a long time,' said Steven Schenker, professor of medicine and pharmacology at The University of Texas, Health Science Center at San Antonio, 'that, in general, both women and female animals are more susceptible to the negative or toxic effects of alcohol. (attcnetwork.org)
  • Additionally, because of the higher blood level of alcohol in their blood, women are more vulnerable to the alcohol's central nervous system effects. (attcnetwork.org)
  • The developing adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic alcohol misuse and abuse has serious effects on physical and mental health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol has a variety of short-term and long-term adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol works in the brain primarily by increasing the effects of a neurotransmitter called γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemistry
  • In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • distillation
  • The medieval Arabs adopted the distillation technique of the Alexandrian Greeks, and written records in Arabic begin in the 9th century, but again these were not distillations of alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest records of the distillation of alcohol are in Italy in the 13th century, where alcohol was distilled from wine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The art of distillation spread to Ireland and Scotland no later than the 15th century, as did the common European practice of distilling "aqua vitae", spirit alcohol, primarily for medicinal purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhazes (854 CE - 925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, and philosopher who discovered numerous compounds and chemicals including "alcohol" by developing several chemical instruments and methods of distillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • By extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including "alcohol of wine," the distilled essence of wine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abuse
  • In addition, damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from chronic alcohol abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol use is also related to various societal problems, including driving accidents and fatalities, accidental injuries, sexual assaults, domestic abuse, and violent crime. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium
  • He produced coniine by reacting 2-methylpyridine with acetaldehyde and reducing the resulting 2-propenyl pyridine with sodium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium azide for example may be mutagenic (and highly toxic), but it has not been shown to be carcinogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Third, it is believed that women younger than the age of 50 have a greater bioavailability (blood circulation) of alcohol, or less first-pass metabolism, than men do. (attcnetwork.org)
  • As a result of first-pass metabolism, the blood level achieved for any given dose of alcohol is less when given orally than if it were to be given intravenously. (attcnetwork.org)
  • Accordingly, women have a lesser first-pass metabolism and, therefore, for a given dose of alcohol, their blood level is higher than it is for men. (attcnetwork.org)
  • Consequences of the alcohol induced redox changes in the human body include increased triglyceride production, increased amino acid catabolism, inhibition of the citric acid cycle, lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, hyperuricemia, disturbance in cortisol and androgen metabolism and increased fibrogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • The symptoms occur typically after the intoxicating effect of the alcohol begins to wear off, generally the morning after a night of heavy drinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Although American men with alcohol-related problems continue to outnumber American women at a ratio of roughly three to one, women appear to have a greater vulnerability to alcohol-related diseases. (attcnetwork.org)
  • recreational
  • Many physicians do not promote alcohol consumption, however, given the many health concerns associated with it, some suggest that alcohol should be regarded as a recreational drug, and promote exercise and good nutrition to combat cardiovascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • certain
  • The earliest certain chemical distillations were by Greeks in Alexandria in the 1st century AD, but these were not distillations of alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • The inverse relation in Western cultures between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease has been known for over 100 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • better source needed] Alcohol is known to make blood less likely to clot, reducing risk of heart attack and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • lead
  • Charles S. Lieber, professor of medicine and pathology at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, chief of the Alcohol Research and Treatment Center at the Bronx VA Medical Center, and the study's lead author, agrees. (attcnetwork.org)
  • cognitive
  • Alcohol causes generalized central nervous system depression and associated cognitive, memory, motor, and sensory impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • addition
  • In addition, high quality alcohol should have a low concentration of contaminants and have a suitable corrosion inhibitor added. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • Halide ions, which are soluble contaminants, such as chloride ions, have a large effect on the corrosivity of alcohol fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall mortality from alcohol use was found to be similar to that of the effect of physical inactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A review in 2009 found that "the net effect of alcohol consumption on health is detrimental, with an estimated 3.8% of all global deaths and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life-years attributable to alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • Because ∼80% of people in Western countries have consumed alcohol, and two-thirds have been drunk in the prior year, the lifetime risk for serious, repetitive alcohol problems is almost 20% for men and 10% for women, regardless of a person's education or income. (mhmedical.com)