• adenosine triphosphate
  • Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is a precursor of coenzymes including pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), which accelerates the metabolic degradation of ethanol and prevents adenosine triphosphate (ATP) inactivation by acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also important to note that step 1 on this reaction is endothermic, requiring 47.2 kJ/mol of alcohol, or about 3 molecules of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) per molecule of ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • dehydration
  • When alcohol blocks the release of this hormone, the kidneys get leaky and stop reabsorbing as much water - resulting in tons of pee and dehydration. (businessinsider.com)
  • Since this decreases total blood volume and, in extreme cases, can result in dehydration, it's not uncommon to postulate that alcohol and caffeine would lower, rather than raise, blood pressure. (livestrong.com)
  • NADH
  • ΔGf = Σ ΔGfp − ΔGfo C2H6O(Ethanol) + NAD+ →C2H4O(Acetaldehyde) + NADH + H+ Ethanol: −174.8 kJ/mol Acetaldehyde: −127.6 kJ/mol ΔGf1 = −127.6 + 174.8 = 47.2 kJ/mol(Endergonic) ΣΔGf = 47.2 kJ/mol (Endergonic, but this does not take into consideration the simultaneous reduction of NAD+. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • The pleasurable effects of alcohol ingestion are the result of increased levels of dopamine and endogenous opioids in the reward pathways of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such a functionality is needed because all organisms actually produce alcohol in small amounts by several pathways, primarily along the fatty acid synthesis, glycerolipid metabolism, and bile acid biosynthesis pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • Alcohol inhibits the production of a substance called glutamine, which can act as a stimulant and keep people awake. (news-medical.net)
  • Formate is toxic because it inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, causing hypoxia at the cellular level, and metabolic acidosis, among a variety of other metabolic disturbances. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependence
  • ALDH2 genetic variation has been closely correlated with alcohol dependence, with heterozygotes at a reduced risk compared to wild type homozygotes and individual homozygotes for the ALDH2-deficient at a very low risk for alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those with the variant allele have little tolerance for alcohol, thus lowering chance of dependence and abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antabuse
  • X, in excellent health and without physical complaints, requested a prescription for Antabuse , a medication causing alcohol aversion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Conventional drug or alcohol rehabilitation such as 12-step programs or Antabuse to treat alcoholism may not work for the elderly who have some cognitive impairment, Dr. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Q I'VE had an alcohol problem for years but heard a drug called antabuse can help me stop. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The pellets, known as Antabuse , release a chemical which, when mixed with alcohol, makes the patient physically sick. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Best, who fell off the wagon recently, has had Antabuse tablets inserted into his stomach wall to keep him off the booze. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • body
  • While alcohol is legal, and some have evidence shows that wine may have positive health effects, alcohol also has immediate effects on the body and brain, and long-term, irreversible health effects. (businessinsider.com)
  • When you take alcohol into your body - no matter if it is in the form of wine, hard liquor, or beer - it all goes to the same place: Your stomach, then your small intestine. (businessinsider.com)
  • The other part is how your body handles the alcohol. (businessinsider.com)
  • Detoxing foot pads turn brown overnight with what manufacturers claim is toxic sludge drawn from your body. (theguardian.com)
  • Both caffeine and alcohol have physiological and psychological effects upon the body. (livestrong.com)
  • Both caffeine and alcohol are well known to be diuretics, meaning that they cause the body to expel more water via the urinary system. (livestrong.com)
  • Chronic ingestion of alcohol can also mess with your digestion, making it difficult for your body to absorb nutrients like amino acids, B vitamins, and impairs protein synthesis. (anabolicminds.com)
  • However, if users are able to practice some moderation with alcohol, a drink or two on occasion will not effectively poison your body and make you irreparably fat. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Alcoholic polyneuropathy (A.K.A alcohol leg) is a neurological disorder in which multiple peripheral nerves throughout the body malfunction simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct alcohol tolerance is largely dependent on body size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher body masses and the prevalence of high levels of alcohol dehydrogenase in an individual increase alcohol tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is colloquially known as "face flush", a condition where the body metabolizes alcohol nearly 100-times less efficiently into acetaldehyde, a toxic metabolite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol also has toxic and unpleasant actions in the body, many of which are mediated by its byproduct acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of ethanol in the body is typically quantified by blood alcohol content (BAC), which is here taken as weight of ethanol per unit volume of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequences of the alcohol induced redox changes in the human body include increased triglyceride production, increased amino acid catabolism, inhibition of the citric acid cycle, lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, hyperuricemia, disturbance in cortisol and androgen metabolism and increased fibrogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcoholism
  • There is some debate over whether the main cause is the direct toxic effect of alcohol itself or whether the disease is a result of alcoholism-related malnutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), Alcohol Alert (28). (wikipedia.org)
  • The deficiency is manifested by slow acetaldehyde removal, with low alcohol tolerance perhaps leading to a lower frequency of alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of increased alcohol availability led to alcoholism and abuse by those able to acquire it, resulting in lower reproductive fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic
  • In addition to vital nutrient deficiencies, toxic metal excesses, hypoglycemia, chronic yeast infection, central nervous system allergies, this article discusses the effects of stimulants in the diet, congenital imbalances, the effects of medications, and a faster-than-normal metabolic rate. (drlwilson.com)
  • effects
  • However, iron is also toxic at these doses, and one cannot stay on a dose of 80 mg/daily for a young child for too long without causing other side effects. (drlwilson.com)
  • The method is a form of aversion therapy and is not without danger of collapse and death from the toxic effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One example [of fast stage one & slow stage two effects] involves alcohol metabolism. (prohealth.com)
  • The University of Maryland Medical Center suggests that those who drink frequently may have a more difficult time controlling blood pressure, and that this effect may have to do with alcohol inhibiting the effects of pressure-reducing medications. (livestrong.com)
  • This reduced sensitivity requires that higher quantities of alcohol be consumed in order to achieve the same effects as before tolerance was established. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol has a variety of short-term and long-term adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adverse effects of alcohol on health are most important when it is used in excessive quantities or with heavy frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol works in the brain primarily by increasing the effects of a neurotransmitter called γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, certain genetic factors can amplify the negative effects of acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • however there is a study suggesting that 1,4-butanediol may have potential alcohol-like pharmacological effects that are not due to this conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • This contradicts the hypothesis that 1,4-butanediol having inherent alcohol-like pharmacological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anxiolytic effects are diminished and side effects increased when used in combination with alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • substance
  • The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol was originally used for the very fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb 2S 3, hence the essence or "spirit" of this substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Utilized in the bacterial degradation of toxic aromatic compounds, the enzyme's crystal structure indicates that intermediates are shuttled directly between active sites through a hydrophobic intermediary channel, providing an unreactive environment in which to move the reactive acetaldehyde intermediate from the aldolase active site to the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhazes (854 CE - 925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, and philosopher who discovered numerous compounds and chemicals including "alcohol" by developing several chemical instruments and methods of distillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • residue
  • As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • While caffeine is a well-known stimulant that individuals often use to increase feelings of alertness and attention, alcohol is an inhibition-lowering drug and a relaxant. (livestrong.com)
  • The American Stroke Association notes that most patients appear to experience increased blood pressure with caffeine use, while the American Academy of Family Practitioners suggests that individuals with high blood pressure limit alcohol consumption. (livestrong.com)
  • In a 2008 article published on the website Science Daily, reporters note that a recent study conducted in England suggests that one mechanism for why alcohol affects blood pressure--particularly in certain individuals--might be genetic. (livestrong.com)
  • The study found that these individuals also appear to experience much higher blood pressure after alcohol consumption. (livestrong.com)
  • There is evidence that providing individuals with adequate vitamins improves symptoms despite continued alcohol intake, indicating that vitamin deficiency may be a major factor in the development and progression of alcoholic polyneuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metabolized acetaldehyde in the blood, which is six times higher than in individuals without the mutation, has shown to be a carcinogen in lab animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • In the UK Afro Caribbean's and in the US black patients are less likely to abuse alcohol and illicit drugs. (wikibooks.org)
  • better source needed] Alcohol is known to make blood less likely to clot, reducing risk of heart attack and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.g., methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • The mechanisms by which alcohol and caffeine increase blood pressure still aren't well understood. (livestrong.com)
  • While the mechanisms whereby alcohol and caffeine increase blood pressure may not be well known, the fact that an increase occurs is recognized in the medical community. (livestrong.com)