• fibers
  • It has been observed that the orientation pattern of β-keratin fibers in the feathers of flying birds differs from that in flightless birds: the fibers are better aligned along the shaft axis direction towards the tip, and the lateral walls of rachis region show structure of crossed fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5.Continually being shed and replaced.Superficial layer.Cytoplasm in these cells has been replaced by a dense network of keratin fibers. (scribd.com)
  • citation needed] The toughest known spider silk is produced by the species Darwin's bark spider (Caerostris darwini): "The toughness of forcibly silked fibers averages 350 MJ/m3, with some samples reaching 520 MJ/m3. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • We have found WECB to posses a similar order of magnitude breaking strain of 95%, but all other parameters are greatly reduced: 5 MPa tensile strength, 3 MJ m -3 toughness, and a 100 MPa maximum elastic modulus ( Rapoport and Shadwick, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • bone
  • The invention provides a biocompatible material derived from keratin that is useful for many aspects of medical treatment of bone. (google.com)
  • The keratin material may be porous for use as a bone. (google.com)
  • The keratin material may be porous for use as a bone replacement and augmentation product but also provided is the use of dense keratin materials in bone treatment for use as an internal fixation appliance in the treatment of bone fractures and bone regeneration, and a method for preparing the keratin material for use in the preservation, restoration and development of form and function of bone. (google.com)
  • 1. A porous material product for the replacement and augmentation of bone, comprising S-sulfonated keratin treated with reducing agent to remove sulfonate functionality and form disulfide crosslinks in the presence of a water soluble porogen and optionally containing up to 60% by weight of hydroxyapatite relative to the total weight of the material. (google.com)
  • The keratin materials described are biocompatible, biointegratable, and biodegradable and the primary application of the materials is in orthopaedic surgery for replacement and augmentation of bone, and fixation and immobilization of bone fractures and bone segments. (google.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 1 , wherein the plurality of elongated sections of bone is demineralized. (google.com)
  • 8 . The method of claim 7 wherein the elongated section of bone is fully demineralized. (google.com.au)
  • 8. The composition of claim 7 , wherein the calcium phosphate has a calcium-to-phosphate ratio comparable to naturally occurring bone minerals. (google.ca)
  • Horns such as those of the impala are made up of keratin covering a core of live bone. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • polymers
  • The toughness and insolubility of hard keratins, which allow them to perform a fundamental structural role in many biological systems, are the desirable characteristics found in many of the industrial and consumer materials derived from synthetic polymers. (google.com)
  • In addition to possessing excellent physical properties, keratin, as a protein, is a polymer with a high degree of chemical functionality and consequently exhibits many properties that synthetic polymers cannot achieve. (google.com)
  • horn
  • Keratin derives from Greek κερατίνη from Greek keras (κέρας) (genitive keratos, κέρατος) meaning "horn" originating from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱer- of the same meaning. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] It is composed of "horn like", i.e., kerato , to which the chemical suffix -in is appended. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • synthetic
  • Medical materials which are absorbed (resorbed) by the body tissues after fulfilling their function are an example of an area of high value products in which the specific characteristics of keratin allow it to outperform both natural and synthetic competitive materials. (google.com)
  • cells
  • STRATUM SPINOSUM (spiny layer) -Formed from 8-10 layers of irregularly shaped cells with very prominent bridges or desmosomes. (scribd.com)
  • Process of surface keratin formation begins cells take on protective function in this layer degeneration of cell nucleus begins -some cell death occurs. (scribd.com)
  • properties
  • Yamauchi (K. Yamauchi, M. Maniwa and T. Mori, Journal of Biomaterial Science, Polymer edition, 3, 259, 1998) demonstrate that keratins can be processed into matrices that are considered biocompatible by virtue of their in vitro and in vivo properties. (google.com)
  • The combination of such properties results in a toughness that is higher than that of most other known materials. (patent-de.com)
  • high
  • Keratin is therefore, well suited to the development of medical products with high-value, niche market applications. (google.com)
  • layer
  • STRATUM GRANULOSM (granular layer) : granular layer contain keratohylin-a precursor to keratin. (scribd.com)
  • addition
  • In addition to intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, the distinguishing feature of keratins is the presence of large amounts of the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine, required for the disulfide bridges that confer additional strength and rigidity by permanent, thermally stable crosslinking-in much the same way that non-protein sulfur bridges stabilize vulcanized rubber. (wikipedia.org)