**tomographic**- Computed tomography (CT) , also called computerized tomographic imaging or computerized axial tomography (CAT) , diagnostic imaging method using a low-dose beam of X-ray s that crosses the body in a single plane at many different angles. (britannica.com)
- In many cases, the production of these images is based on the mathematical procedure tomographic reconstruction, such as X-ray computed tomography technically being produced from multiple projectional radiographs. (wikipedia.org)
- Process tomography consists of tomographic imaging of systems, such as process pipes in industry. (wikipedia.org)
- Geometric tomography is a mathematical field that focuses on problems of reconstructing homogeneous (often convex) objects from tomographic data (this might be X-rays, projections, sections, brightness functions, or covariograms). (wikipedia.org)
- This process is analogous to x-ray computed tomography, except that tomographic mathematical models describe light and sound propagation in tissues. (wikipedia.org)

**positron**- Positron-emission tomography ( PET ) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body. (wikipedia.org)
- Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is a medical diagnostic technique based on the detection of positrons emitted by labeled substances introduced into the body. (daviddarling.info)
- The word tomography is used to link the field, in concept, to other processes that infer the internal characteristics of an object from external observation, as is done in magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography (even though the term tomography strictly refers to imaging by slicing). (wikipedia.org)
- Many different imaging methods are used in process tomography, e.g. ultrasonic imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), electrical resistance tomography (ERT) and electrical impedance tomography (EIT), electrical capacitance tomography (ECT), magnetic induction tomography (MIT). (wikipedia.org)

**Radiography**- Focal plane tomography was developed in the 1930s by the radiologist Alessandro Vallebona, and proved useful in reducing the problem of superimposition of structures in projectional radiography. (wikipedia.org)
- Since its development in the 1950s, muon tomography has taken many forms, the most important of which are muon transmission radiography and muon scattering tomography. (wikipedia.org)

**Discrete**- Discrete tomography and Geometric tomography, on the other hand, are research areas[citation needed] that deal with the reconstruction of objects that are discrete (such as crystals) or homogeneous. (wikipedia.org)
- Discrete tomography focuses on the problem of reconstruction of binary images (or finite subsets of the integer lattice) from a small number of their projections. (wikipedia.org)
- In discrete tomography the domain of the function may be either discrete or continuous, and the range of the function is a finite set of real, usually nonnegative numbers. (wikipedia.org)
- It is typical for discrete tomography that only a few projections (line sums) are used. (wikipedia.org)
- A special case of discrete tomography deals with the problem of the reconstruction of a binary image from a small number of projections. (wikipedia.org)
- The name discrete tomography is due to Larry Shepp, who organized the first meeting devoted to this topic (DIMACS Mini-Symposium on Discrete Tomography, September 19, 1994, Rutgers University). (wikipedia.org)
- Discrete tomography has strong connections with other mathematical fields, such as number theory, discrete mathematics, complexity theory and combinatorics. (wikipedia.org)
- In fact, a number of discrete tomography problems were first discussed as combinatorial problems. (wikipedia.org)
- Coloring a grid using k {\displaystyle k} colors with the restriction that each row and each column has a specific number of cells of each color is known as the ( k − 1 ) {\displaystyle (k-1)} −atom problem in the discrete tomography community. (wikipedia.org)
- A form of discrete tomography also forms the basis of nonograms, a type of logic puzzle in which information about the rows and columns of a digital image is used to reconstruct the image. (wikipedia.org)
- A. Alpers, P. Gritzmann, On Stability, Error Correction, and Noise Compensation in Discrete Tomography, SIAM Journal on Discrete Mathematics 20 (1), pp. 227-239, 2006 P. Gritzmann, B. Langfeld, On the index of Siegel grids and its application to the tomography of quasicrystals. (wikipedia.org)

**word tomography**- The word tomography is derived from Ancient Greek τόμος tomos, "slice, section" and γράφω graphō, "to write" (see also Etymology). (wikipedia.org)

**electromagnetic tomography**- Computational aspects of low frequency electrical and electromagnetic tomography: A review study. (wikipedia.org)
- It is also called electromagnetic induction tomography, electromagnetic tomography (EMT), eddy current tomography, and eddy current testing. (wikipedia.org)

**2001**- Electrical capacitance volume tomography Electrical impedance tomography Electrical resistivity tomography Electrical capacitance tomography Industrial Tomography Systems York, T., 2001. (wikipedia.org)

**Geometric**- More precisely, according to R.J. Gardner (who introduced the term), "Geometric tomography deals with the retrieval of information about a geometric object from data concerning its projections (shadows) on planes or cross-sections by planes. (wikipedia.org)

**magnetic**- Alternative methods of scanning include x-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), ultrasound and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). (wikipedia.org)
- Magnetic induction tomography is an imaging technique used to image electromagnetic properties of an object by using the eddy current effect. (wikipedia.org)
- Non-invasive coronary imaging: computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging? (wikipedia.org)

**1997**- Status of electrical tomography in industrial applications, Journal of Electronic Imaging Gladden, L. F. (1997). (wikipedia.org)

**mathematical**- Image formation can be done by means of hardware (e.g. acoustic focusing or optical focusing) or computed tomography (mathematical image formation). (wikipedia.org)

**reconstruction**- A computed tomography device comprising a subtraction unit which obtains differential data strings representing the difference between each time-serial projection data string of a group of projection data strings corresponding to a prospective reconstruction image generated by projection data strings. (google.ca)
- They are concerned with reconstruction methods, and as such they are not restricted to any of the particular (experimental) tomography methods listed above. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, provided that the features can be resolved, ADF-STEM tomography can yield a reliable reconstruction of the underlying specimen which is extremely important for its application in material science. (wikipedia.org)

**datasets**- Seismic tomography requires large datasets of seismograms and well-located earthquake or explosion sources. (wikipedia.org)

**Diffraction**- Diffraction and wave equation tomography use the full waveform, rather than just the first arrival times. (wikipedia.org)
- Diffraction tomography is an inverse scattering technique used to find the shape of a scattering object by illuminating it with probing waves and recording the reflections. (wikipedia.org)

**inverse problem**- Tomography is solved as an inverse problem. (wikipedia.org)

**scan**- A cardiac computed tomography also may be called a coronary CT angiography, MSCT, CT, cardiac CT, coronary CTA or cardiac CAT scan. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Seismic tomography is similar to medical x-ray computed tomography (CT scan) in that a computer processes receiver data to produce a 3D image, although CT scans use attenuation instead of traveltime difference. (wikipedia.org)

**measurements**- Tomography involves taking measurements around the periphery of an object (e.g. process vessel or patient) to determine what is going on inside. (wikipedia.org)
- Quantum tomography or quantum state tomography is the process of reconstructing the quantum state (density matrix) for a source of quantum systems by measurements on the systems coming from the source. (wikipedia.org)
- The general principle behind quantum state tomography is that by repeatedly performing many different measurements on quantum systems described by identical density matrices, frequency counts can be used to infer probabilities, and these probabilities are combined with Born's rule to determine a density matrix which fits the best with the observations. (wikipedia.org)
- Unlike a measurement on a single system, which determines the system's current state after the measurement (in general, the act of making a measurement alters the quantum state), quantum tomography works to determine the state(s) prior to the measurements. (wikipedia.org)
- Ocean acoustic tomography integrates temperature variations over large distances, that is, the measured travel times result from the accumulated effects of all the temperature variations along the acoustic path, hence measurements by the technique are inherently averaging. (wikipedia.org)

**1995**- Optical coherence tomography: a new tool for glaucoma diagnosis," Current Opinion in Ophthalmology , vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 89-95, 1995. (hindawi.com)

**technique**- August 28, 1919 Newark, Nottinghamshire, England August 12, 2004 Kingston upon Thames English electrical engineer who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Allan Cormack for his part in developing the diagnostic technique of computerized axial tomography (CAT), or computerized. (britannica.com)
- Computed Tomography (CT) is a very useful technique for non-destructively examining the interior of museum objects in three dimensions. (fieldmuseum.org)
- Seismic tomography is a technique for imaging the subsurface of the Earth with seismic waves produced by earthquakes or explosions. (wikipedia.org)
- Muon tomography is a technique that uses cosmic ray muons to generate three-dimensional images of volumes using information contained in the Coulomb scattering of the muons. (wikipedia.org)
- In 2003, the scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory developed a new imaging technique: muon scattering tomography (MT). With muon scattering tomography, both incoming and outgoing trajectories for each particle are reconstructed. (wikipedia.org)
- Electron tomography (ET) is a tomography technique for obtaining detailed 3D structures of sub-cellular macro-molecular objects. (wikipedia.org)
- Ocean acoustic tomography is a technique used to measure temperatures and currents over large regions of the ocean. (wikipedia.org)

**optical**- High-resolution endoscopic imaging of the GI tract using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy , vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 474-479, 2000. (hindawi.com)
- Optical coherence tomography: advanced technology for the endoscopic imaging of Barrett's esophagus," Endoscopy , vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 921-930, 2000. (hindawi.com)
- Each form of tomography has an optimal range of Optical resolution that it can function across, but many modern materials and applications need information beyond the range of a single form of tomography. (wikipedia.org)
- Quantum tomography can be used for characterizing optical signals, including measuring the signal gain and loss of optical devices, as well as in quantum computing and quantum information theory to reliably determine the actual states of the qubits. (wikipedia.org)
- Optical tomography is a form of computed tomography that creates a digital volumetric model of an object by reconstructing images made from light transmitted and scattered through an object. (wikipedia.org)
- Optical tomography is used mostly in medical imaging research. (wikipedia.org)
- Optical tomography in industry is used as a sensor of thickness and internal structure of semiconductors. (wikipedia.org)
- Optical tomography relies on the object under study being at least partially light-transmitting or translucent, so it works best on soft tissue, such as breast and brain tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- A variant of optical tomography uses optical time-of-flight sampling as an attempt to distinguish transmitted light from scattered light. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] Optical coherence tomography Diffuse optical imaging Computed tomography laser mammography Optical Tomography at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ^ Wojtek J. Walecki and Fanny Szondy, "Integrated quantum efficiency, reflectance, topography and stress metrology for solar cell manufacturing", Sunrise Optical LLC, Proc. (wikipedia.org)
- Multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) is an imaging technology that generates high-resolution optical images in scattering media, including biological tissues. (wikipedia.org)

**Acoustic**- Acoustic tomography involves sending a sonic signal across a measurement area and timing how long it takes to travel the distance. (mathworks.com)
- These properties motivated Walter Munk and Carl Wunsch to suggest "acoustic tomography" for ocean measurement in the late 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the intriguing aspects of tomography is that it exploits the fact that acoustic signals travel along a set of generally stable ray paths. (wikipedia.org)
- Reciprocal tomography" employs the simultaneous transmissions between two acoustic transceivers. (wikipedia.org)

**citation needed**- citation needed] In fluorescence tomography, the fluorescence signal transmitted through the tissue is normalized by the excitation signal transmitted through the tissue, and so many of the fluorescence tomography systems do not require the use of time-resolved or frequency domain data, although research is still ongoing in this area. (wikipedia.org)

**structures**- Neutron tomography of internal structures of vertebrate remains: a comparison with X-ray computed tomography" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)

**measurement**- Similarly, quantum measurement tomography works to find out what measurement is being performed. (wikipedia.org)

**Principles**- Computed Tomography Techniques and Principles. (wikipedia.org)

**Journal**- In a 1953 article in the medical journal Chest, B. Pollak of the Fort William Sanatorium described the use of planography, another term for tomography. (wikipedia.org)

**Image**- A device used in tomography is called a tomograph, while the image produced is a tomogram. (wikipedia.org)
- Since muons are much more deeply penetrating than X-rays, muon tomography can be used to image through much thicker material than x-ray based tomography such as CT scanning. (wikipedia.org)

**form**- Multiscale Tomography (or multi-length scale tomography) is a form of tomography spanning large orders of magnitude in resolution, often utilizing many different forms of tomography together to do so. (wikipedia.org)
- Neutron tomography is a form of computed tomography involving the production of three-dimensional images by the detection of the absorbance of neutrons produced by a neutron source. (wikipedia.org)
- Using Born's rule, one can derive the simplest form of quantum tomography. (wikipedia.org)
- Electron beam tomography (EBT) is a specific form of computed tomography (CT) in which the X-ray tube is not mechanically spun in order to rotate the source of X-ray photons. (wikipedia.org)

**Imaging**- The BGS Geophysical Tomography (GTom) team provides leading-edge technology for non-invasive geoelectrical imaging of the shallow subsurface. (youtube.com)
- X-ray computed tomography (CT) is an invaluable three-dimensional non-destructive imaging method with numerous applications in life and material science. (esrf.eu)
- Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave. (wikipedia.org)
- Terahertz tomography is a class of tomography where sectional imaging is done by terahertz radiation. (wikipedia.org)
- In the field of biology, bright-field transmission electron microscopy (BF-TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) are the primary imaging methods for tomography tilt series acquisition. (wikipedia.org)

**different**- Computed tomography requires taking a series of X-radiographs from different angles around an object and then mathematically reconstructing the volume which would have caused this series of projections to appear. (fieldmuseum.org)
- The construction of third-generation synchrotron sources combined with the tremendous improvement of detector technology, data storage and processing capabilities since the 1990s has led to a boost of high-end synchrotron tomography in materials research with a wide range of different applications, e.g. the visualization and quantitative analysis of differently absorbing phases, microporosities, cracks, precipitates or grains in a specimen. (wikipedia.org)
- In continuous tomography when a large number of projections is available, accurate reconstructions can be made by many different algorithms. (wikipedia.org)
- An overview of electromagnetic inductance tomography: description of three different systems. (wikipedia.org)

**quantum**- In quantum process tomography on the other hand, known quantum states are used to probe a quantum process to find out how the process can be described. (wikipedia.org)
- In the following text we will see that this probability density is needed to characterize the particle's quantum state, which is the whole point of quantum tomography. (wikipedia.org)
- Quantum tomography is applied on a source of systems, to determine what the quantum state is of the output of that source. (wikipedia.org)
- Not confident with Bob's description of the states, Alice may wish to do quantum tomography to classify the states herself. (wikipedia.org)

**techniques**- Review of Terahertz Tomography Techniques. (wikipedia.org)

**method**- Another method of obtaining a tilt-series is the so-called conical tomography method, in which the sample is tilted, and then rotated a complete turn. (wikipedia.org)

**approach**- Furthermore, the approach can be combined with local tomography to obtain a detailed view of a region of interest within a large sample. (esrf.eu)

**Images**- Images, produced by computed tomography, of the human brain. (britannica.com)
- Seismic tomography uses seismic records to create 2D and 3D images of subsurface anomalies by solving large inverse problems such that generate models consistent with observed data. (wikipedia.org)

**nuclear**- Muon tomography imagers are under development for the purposes of detecting nuclear material in road transport vehicles and cargo containers for the purposes of non-proliferation. (wikipedia.org)

**uses**- Electron tomography is an extension of traditional transmission electron microscopy and uses a transmission electron microscope to collect the data. (wikipedia.org)
- An oceanographic experiment employing tomography typically uses several source-receiver pairs in a moored array that measures an area of ocean. (wikipedia.org)

**applications**- Other example applications of network tomography include finding links which are shared by multiple paths (and can thus become potential bottlenecks in the future). (wikipedia.org)
- Process tomography is an area of rapid growth both in terms of research and applications. (wikipedia.org)
- Since the applications of fluorescent molecules in humans are fairly limited, most of the work in fluorescence tomography has been in the realm of pre-clinical cancer research. (wikipedia.org)

**data**- Network tomography is the study of a network's internal characteristics using information derived from end point data. (wikipedia.org)
- Network tomography advocates that it is possible to map the path data takes through the Internet by examining information from "edge nodes," the computers in which the data are originated and from which they are requested. (wikipedia.org)
- Data derived from network tomography studies can be used to increase quality of service by limiting link packet loss and increasing routing optimization. (wikipedia.org)
- Hydraulic tomography (HT) is a sequential cross-hole hydraulic test followed by inversion of all the data to map the spatial distribution of aquifer hydraulic properties. (wikipedia.org)

**Find**- Loss tomography aims to find "lossy" links in a network by sending active "probes" from various vantage points in the network or the Internet. (wikipedia.org)

**paths**- Seismic tomography has to deal with the analysis of curved ray paths which are reflected and refracted within the earth and potential uncertainty in the location of the earthquake hypocenter. (wikipedia.org)

**carbon**- Another application is the usage of muon tomography to monitor potential underground sites used for carbon sequestration. (wikipedia.org)

**process**- The forms of tomography combined in the process depend on what is being studied and the details needed. (wikipedia.org)
- however, process tomography instrumentation needs to be cheaper, faster and more robust. (wikipedia.org)

**forms**- Combining this information using many forms of tomography can help provide a holistic view of the system being looked at, and important for Computer simulations. (wikipedia.org)

**area**- There have been many published papers and tools in the area of network tomography, which aim to monitor the health of various links in a network in real-time. (wikipedia.org)
- The area of delay tomography has also attracted attention in the recent past. (wikipedia.org)
- The area of network tomography also includes that of inferring network topology using end-to-end probes. (wikipedia.org)

**object**- In tomography the 3D distribution of some physical quantity in the object is determined. (wikipedia.org)
- In general, tomography deals with the problem of determining shape and dimensional information of an object from a set of projections. (wikipedia.org)

**computer**- I am looking for computer tomography SW. (bio.net)

**radiation**- Because terahertz radiation can "see" what visible light and IR can not see, unique information can be obtained by terahertz tomography. (wikipedia.org)

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