• Frogs
  • The parotoid gland (alternatively, paratoid gland) is an external skin gland on the back, neck, and shoulder of toads and some frogs and salamanders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toads are adapted to drier habitats than frogs, but like frogs, use their sticky tongues to catch flies and other insects. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Together with the West Africa Nimbaphrynoides (which was included in Nectophrynoides in the past) and Limnonectes larvaepartus, they are the only frogs/toads in the world that do not lay eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • glands
  • A study of the parotoid glands of the Colorado River toad in 1976 found that the parotoid glands were "composed of numerous lobules", each of which is a separate unit with a lumen surrounded by a double cell layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study noted that the structure of the parotoid glands of the Colorado River toad is very different from the structure of the same glands in the cane toad. (wikipedia.org)
  • These glands contain an alkaloid poison which the toads excrete when stressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to those earlier lineages, these are typically large to very large toads that produce large to stupendously large clutches, have exotrophous larvae (viz, larvae that feed from the environment, rather than rely on a maternally provided food source), and possess large to enormous parotoid glands. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Degen's toad is a small toad with long, narrow parotoid glands, distinctive dark-coloured longitudinal stripes and rows of large tubercles on its upper surface, and a bold patterning of red and dark blotches on its underside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peltophryne
  • In the previous parts of this series, I got through all the 'atelopine' toads and then looked at the South American and Caribbean members of the 'ver 2' clades Rhaebo and Peltophryne . (scientificamerican.com)
  • They are morphologically similar to the related southern crested toad (Peltophryne guentheri) but are smaller in size, darker in dorsal coloration, and have a greater interorbital distance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rediscovery of the eastern crested toad (Peltophryne fracta), with comments on conservation, vocalization, and mating" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • phylogeny
  • However… in the time that I've been writing this series of articles, several major analyses of toad phylogeny and biogeography have appeared. (scientificamerican.com)
  • You might say that toad phylogeny became rightfully high profile in 2010, thanks in part to Ines Van Bocxlaer et al . (scientificamerican.com)
  • In saying this I certainly mean no disrespect to the many other authors who have published on toad phylogeny, sometimes in such august publications as Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society , Molecular Biology and Evolution , Zootaxa and Evolution . (scientificamerican.com)
  • True
  • Bufotoxin True toad Cannon MS, Hostetler JR (February 1976). (wikipedia.org)
  • True toads are widespread and occur natively on every continent except Australia and Antarctica, inhabiting a variety of environments, from arid areas to rainforest. (wikipedia.org)
  • True toads are toothless and generally warty in appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • The evolution of the 'range-expansion phenotype' in toads (the key evolutionary events occurred within the part of the tree marked by the grey box), as depicted by Van Bocxlaer et al. (scientificamerican.com)
  • bufonids
  • Adenomus are slender toads that lack the supraorbital ridge (present in other Sri Lankan bufonids) and have smooth finger edges (versus granular). (wikipedia.org)
  • These are considered to be derived characters that set these toads apart from other bufonids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frog
  • Common names longnose stubfoot toad, scrawny stubfoot-toad, and longnose sharlequin frog have been coined for it. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly known
  • Rhinophrynus dorsalis, commonly known as the Mexican Burrowing Toad, grows to 8 cm (3.1 in) in length, and usually has red spots on its bloated body with a red stripe along the center of its back. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ecuador
  • They are sometimes known as the Central American toads or Middle American toads and are found in southern USA, Mexico, Central America, and northern Pacific South America (Colombia and Ecuador). (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • 2010) wrote of them as exhibiting a 'range-expansion phenotype' and described how the evolution of these new features "initiated the episode of global colonization and triggered the major radiation of toads" (p. 679). (scientificamerican.com)
  • Lanka
  • Back from the dead: The world's rarest toad Adenomus kandianus rediscovered in Sri Lanka" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Degen's toad is found in Uganda and was first described by George Albert Boulenger in 1906. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • This is a little known terrestrial toad inhabiting premontane wet forest at elevation of 1,500 m (4,900 ft) asl. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • After warm spring rains, large congregations of toads assemble and begin a frantic competition for mates. (tolweb.org)
  • western
  • It seems that the earliest toads inhabited western Gondwana prior to the splitting of South America from Antartica (an event that didn't fully occur until the Oligocene). (scientificamerican.com)
  • In the Pacific Northwest, the western toad occurs in mountain meadows and less commonly in Douglas-fir forests. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • 2010). While broadly agreeing on several major aspects of tree shape, the different studies on toad pnhylogeny differ radically in some important respects. (scientificamerican.com)
  • World
  • One of my long-term goals at Tet Zoo has been to complete my series of articles on the toads of the world… actually, this started out as a short-term goal, but it ended up taking rather longer than expected. (scientificamerican.com)
  • causes
  • The vague similarity in appearance, however, is the reason behind the mistaken belief that touching a toad causes warts. (wikipedia.org)
  • range
  • The Nile Delta toad has a total range of less than 20,000 square kilometres (7,700 sq mi), and although it is familiar in dense populations, it is rarely seen. (wikipedia.org)