• Fibrosis
  • Unlike other forms of vascular calcifications (e.g., intimal, medial, valvular), calciphylaxis is characterized also by small vessel mural calcification with or without endovascular fibrosis, extravascular calcification and vascular thrombosis, leading to tissue ischemia (including skin ischemia and, hence, skin necrosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • hypertension
  • An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ten years later that number increased to more than 430,000 as a result of chronic conditions developing such as diabetes and hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • and Afro-Caribbean background - unclear whether this is due to them being more genetically susceptible to kidney damage by hypertension or whether it is because of poor management of high blood pressure amongst them. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the kidneys, as a result of benign arterial hypertension, hyaline (pink, amorphous, homogeneous material) accumulates in the walls of small arteries and arterioles, producing the thickening of their walls and the narrowing of the arterial openings, a process known as arteriolosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertensive nephropathy refers to kidney failure that can be attributed to a history of hypertension It is a chronic condition and it is a serious risk factor for the development of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, despite the well-known association between hypertension and chronic kidney disease, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea is that hypertension results in sclerosis of the glomeruli which ultimately means reduced kidney function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic hypertension with progressive kidney disease progresses over a long period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • perfusion
  • Further, constriction of the efferent arterioles of the kidney leads to increased perfusion pressure in the glomeruli. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a compensatory mechanism, the unaffected nephrons (specifically, the preglomerular arterioles) vasodilate to increase blood flow to the kidney perfusion and increase glomerular filtration across undamaged glomeruli. (wikipedia.org)
  • urea
  • Measuring the level of two waste products in the blood, namely blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood creatinine (CREA), indicates decreased kidney function. (vcahospitals.com)
  • occurs
  • If a major stress such as illness or surgery occurs, the kidneys may fail, sending the blood test values up quickly. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Filtration occurs in the glomerulus: one-fifth of the blood volume that enters the kidneys is filtered. (wikipedia.org)
  • As tissue thrombosis and infarction occurs, a black, leathery eschar in an ulcer with adherent black slough are found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the tissue has infarcted, wound healing seldom occurs, and ulcers are more likely to become secondarily infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the calcium has been deposited, a thrombotic event occurs within the lumen of these vessels, resulting in tissue infarction. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • Intestinal organs may also become infected, potentially causing scar tissue with chronic pain, intestinal blockage, and infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kidneys are paired vital organs located behind the abdominal cavity at the bottom of the ribcage corresponding to the levels T12-L3 of the spine vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes
  • Diabetes and high blood pressure are seen as the 2 most common causes of kidney failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of the differential diagnosis for polyneuropathy one must look at the following: Vitamin deficiency Diabetes mellitus Toxins Guillain-BarrĂ© syndrome Lyme disease Hepatitis C Amyloidosis Acromegaly Kidney failure In the treatment of polyneuropathies one must ascertain and manage the cause, among management activities are: weight decrease, use of a walking aid, and occupational therapist assistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a leading cause of new cases of blindness, and is associated with increased risk for painful neuropathy, heart disease and kidney failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • When disease or advanced age causes the filtration process to become inefficient and ineffective, blood flow to the kidneys is increased in an attempt to increase filtration. (vcahospitals.com)
  • The body must increase the amount of blood flowing through the kidneys since less and less of the metabolic toxins are being removed each time. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Markers of electrolyte and water imbalance in the body such as hypotension, low distal tubule sodium concentration, decreased blood volume and high sympathetic tone trigger the release of the enzyme renin from the cells of juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • A progressive kidney disease characterized by the presence of high blood pressure. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Loss of body acids, as a result of frequent vomiting, leads to high alkali levels in the blood and body tissues. (allaboutlifechallenges.org)
  • CAN is characterized by a gradual decline in kidney function and, typically, accompanied by high blood pressure and hematuria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanical device used to clean the patients blood is called a dialyser, also known as an artificial kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertensive kidney disease is a medical condition referring to damage to the kidney due to chronic high blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The narrowing of the blood vessels means less blood is going to the tissue and so less oxygen is reaching the tissue resulting in tissue death (ischemia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors for HN include poorly controlled moderate to high blood pressure, older age, other kidney disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In this situation, the kidney supplied blood by the narrowed renal artery suffers from inadequate blood flow, which in turn causes the size of the kidneys to decrease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like AKI, AoCRF can be difficult to distinguish from chronic kidney disease if the patient has not been monitored by a physician and no baseline (i.e., past) blood work is available for comparison. (wikipedia.org)
  • When kidneys fail to filter properly, waste accumulates in the blood and the body, a condition called azotemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can result in: Feeling tired or weak Memory problems Difficulty concentrating Dizziness Low blood pressure Normally, proteins are too large to pass through the kidneys, however, they are able to pass through when the glomeruli are damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastric
  • H. pylori infection is also associated with development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is an uncommon cause of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding or iron deficiency anemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • abdominal cavity
  • In humans, the kidneys are located high in the abdominal cavity, one on each side of the spine, and lie in a retroperitoneal position at a slightly oblique angle. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Tethered spinal cord can be caused by various conditions but the main cause is when tissue attachments limit the movement of the spinal cord in the spinal column which causes abnormal stretching of the cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current belief is that in end-stage kidney disease, abnormal calcium and phosphate homeostasis result in the deposition of calcium in the vessels, also known as metastatic calcification. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxins
  • Via one or more of these mechanisms, the kidney participates in the control of the volume of various body fluid compartments, fluid osmolality, acid-base balance, various electrolyte concentrations, and removal of toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • include chronic
  • The most common cause is acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy AIDP, the most common form of Guillain-BarrĂ© syndrome(although other causes include chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ) Neuronopathy is the result of issues in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons. (wikipedia.org)