• perfusion
  • Further, constriction of the efferent arterioles of the kidney leads to increased perfusion pressure in the glomeruli. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a compensatory mechanism, the unaffected nephrons (specifically, the preglomerular arterioles) vasodilate to increase blood flow to the kidney perfusion and increase glomerular filtration across undamaged glomeruli. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • By definition, chronic renal failure (CRF) is the inability of the kidneys to efficiently filter the blood of its physiological waste products, not the inability to produce urine. (vcahospitals.com)
  • When disease or advanced age causes the filtration process to become inefficient and ineffective, blood flow to the kidneys is increased in an attempt to increase filtration. (vcahospitals.com)
  • The body must increase the amount of blood flowing through the kidneys since less and less of the metabolic toxins are being removed each time. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Tests to measure the blood levels of other substances such as albumin, globulin, potassium, sodium, phosphorus and calcium, as well as the red and white blood cell counts are important in order to determine the extent of failure and the best course of treatment. (vcahospitals.com)
  • If a major stress such as illness or surgery occurs, the kidneys may fail, sending the blood test values up quickly. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Markers of electrolyte and water imbalance in the body such as hypotension, low distal tubule sodium concentration, decreased blood volume and high sympathetic tone trigger the release of the enzyme renin from the cells of juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the condition becomes more serious, signs of septic shock may appear, including: Low blood pressure (hypotension) Low body temperature (hypothermia) Little or no urine output (oliguria) Respiratory distress (dyspnea and labored breathing) Septic shock may lead to kidney failure, bleeding diathesis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). (wikipedia.org)
  • CAN is characterized by a gradual decline in kidney function and, typically, accompanied by high blood pressure and hematuria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detecting kidney disease before the kidneys start to shut down is uncommon, with high blood pressure and decreased appetite being symptoms that indicate a problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertensive kidney disease is a medical condition referring to damage to the kidney due to chronic high blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The narrowing of the blood vessels means less blood is going to the tissue and so less oxygen is reaching the tissue resulting in tissue death (ischemia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors for HN include poorly controlled moderate to high blood pressure, older age, other kidney disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In this situation, the kidney supplied blood by the narrowed renal artery suffers from inadequate blood flow, which in turn causes the size of the kidneys to decrease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most frequently applied MRA methods involve the use intravenous contrast agents, particularly those containing gadolinium to shorten the T1 of blood to about 250 ms, shorter than the T1 of all other tissues (except fat). (wikipedia.org)
  • They take advantage of the fact that the blood within vessels is flowing to distinguish the vessels from other static tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow dependent MRA can be divided into different categories: There is phase-contrast MRA (PC-MRA) which utilizes phase differences to distinguish blood from static tissue and time-of-flight MRA (TOF MRA) which exploits that moving spins of the blood experience fewer excitation pulses than static tissue, e.g. when imaging a thin slice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Time-of-flight (TOF) or inflow angiography, uses a short echo time and flow compensation to make flowing blood much brighter than stationary tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • As flowing blood enters the area being imaged it has seen a limited number of excitation pulses so it is not saturated, this gives it a much higher signal than the saturated stationary tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Static tissues such as muscle or bone will subtract out, however moving tissues such as blood will acquire a different phase since it moves constantly through the gradient, thus also giving its speed of the flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes of acute kidney failure include low blood pressure, blockage of the urinary tract, certain medications, muscle breakdown, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like AKI, AoCRF can be difficult to distinguish from chronic kidney disease if the patient has not been monitored by a physician and no baseline (i.e., past) blood work is available for comparison. (wikipedia.org)
  • When kidneys fail to filter properly, waste accumulates in the blood and the body, a condition called azotemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the kidneys fail, they produce less erythropoietin, resulting in decreased production of red blood cells to replace the natural breakdown of old red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can result in: Feeling tired or weak Memory problems Difficulty concentrating Dizziness Low blood pressure Normally, proteins are too large to pass through the kidneys, however, they are able to pass through when the glomeruli are damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastric
  • H. pylori infection is also associated with development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is an uncommon cause of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding or iron deficiency anemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • tubules
  • Stimulation by AII of the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone, a hormone that acts on kidney tubules, causes sodium and chloride ions retention and potassium excretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibrosis
  • Unlike other forms of vascular calcifications (e.g., intimal, medial, valvular), calciphylaxis is characterized also by small vessel mural calcification with or without endovascular fibrosis, extravascular calcification and vascular thrombosis, leading to tissue ischemia (including skin ischemia and, hence, skin necrosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreas
  • If you have chronic pancreatitis, the digestive enzymes that would normally travel by tubes inside your pancreas and empty into your upper intestine, become trapped inside your pancreas. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Chronic pancreatitis destroys your pancreas. (ahealthyme.com)
  • collagen
  • Cytograft - Produces the LifelineTM vascular graft using sheet-based tissue engineering to culture fibroblast cells, promoting production of collagen. (openwetware.org)
  • abnormal
  • People with renal failure develop weaken bones from abnormal mineralization of the bone. (healthtap.com)
  • Tethered spinal cord can be caused by various conditions but the main cause is when tissue attachments limit the movement of the spinal cord in the spinal column which causes abnormal stretching of the cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • What causes chronic pancreatitis? (ahealthyme.com)
  • The most common cause is acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy AIDP, the most common form of Guillain-BarrĂ© syndrome(although other causes include chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ) Neuronopathy is the result of issues in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Once the calcium has been deposited, a thrombotic event occurs within the lumen of these vessels, resulting in tissue infarction. (wikipedia.org)
  • If calcium is already being used as a supplement, additional calcium used as a phosphate binder may cause hypercalcemia and tissue-damaging calcinosis. (wikipedia.org)