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  • Centers for Diseas
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of cases reported to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the rate of Lyme disease infection is 7.9 cases for every 100,000 persons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence-based data are scarce therefore many aspects of the disease remain controversial (2,3,4), but in 2013 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised their annual estimates from 30,000 cases to 300,000 cases in the USA alone. (borrelioosi.net)
  • bite
  • Ehrlichiosis anaplasmosis (formerly human granulocytic ehrlichiosis or HGE) Organism: Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. equi (renamed to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, see Human granulocytic anaplasmosis for another example) Vector: Lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum), I. scapularis Region (US): South Atlantic, South-central Bartonella: Bartonella transmission rates to humans via tick bite are not well established but Bartonella is common in ticks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immediately upon the onset of a tick bite, it transmits a pain killer, anti-histamine and an anti-coagulant. (lymebook.com)
  • The illness follows a lone star tick bite, and clinically resembles Lyme disease, but sufferers usually test negative for Lyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • These recent historical, geographical and microbial data should prompt the medical community to realize that cases of persisting post tick-bite syndromes are probably due to multiple pathogens and that these occult infections will require a new approach if not an actual paradigm shift. (borrelioosi.net)
  • A major obstacle is that only 30% of the patients report a history of tick bite and only 70 to 80% present with a primary erythema migrans, the pathognomonic initial lesion. (borrelioosi.net)
  • The recently discovered B miyamotoi species is transmitted by tick bite and may be transmissible via blood transfusion. (medscape.com)
  • Endemic
  • Lyme disease is most endemic in Northern Hemisphere temperate regions, but sporadic cases have been described in other areas of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • This might be due to the very low incidence in an endemic region (0.2%, CI 95% 0.0% to 1.1%) as demonstrated in 517 patients hospitalized for psychiatric diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • Alzheimer's
  • We and others have examined patients with various neurodegenerative and behavioral neurological conditions, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders ([ASD], including Autism, Attention Deficit Disorder, Asperger Syndrome), and found evidence for systemic intracellular bacterial and viral infections in a majority of patients. (townsendletter.com)
  • arthritis
  • It was first identified in 1975 in the town of Old Lyme, CT after an outbreak of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. (davidson.edu)
  • The patients considered for entry in the study had an EM rash and either arthritis or neuroborreliosis. (medcapsules.com)
  • However, about 10-15% of patients with Lyme arthritis fail the initial course of antibiotics, and some of those develop a chronic inflammatory arthritis optimally treated with local or systemic immunosuppressive agents. (springer.com)
  • Lyme arthritis: an epidemic of oligoarticular arthritis in children and adults in three connecticut communities. (springer.com)
  • Orczyk K, Swidrowska-Jaros J, Smolewska E. When a patient suspected with juvenile idiopathic arthritis turns out to be diagnosed with an infectious disease - a review of Lyme arthritis in children. (springer.com)
  • However, almost all of 75 patients with Lyme arthritis, a late disease manifestation, had strong IgG reactivity with both glycolipids. (borrelioosi.net)
  • hard ticks
  • Unlike hard ticks, Ornithodoros adult ticks are able to live for many years, feed repeatedly on blood meals, lay eggs, and perpetuate their life cycle. (medscape.com)
  • rash
  • this rash occurs in 75% of patients infected with Lyme disease and tends to resolve from the inside-out, leaving a bull's eye mark on the skin (Frey 2002). (davidson.edu)
  • ELISA
  • Neuroborreliosis can also be diagnosed serologically to confirm clinical examination via western blot, ELISA, and PCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies (14) by the group responsible for Lyme disease proficiency testing for the College of American Pathologists (CAP) came to the conclusion that the currently available ELISA assays for Lyme disease do not have adequate sensitivity to meet the two-tiered approach recommended by the CDC/ASPHLD group (7). (medcapsules.com)
  • the components in each fraction were identified, and the immunogenicity of each fraction was determined by ELISA using sera from Lyme disease patients. (borrelioosi.net)
  • clinical
  • As the incidence of tick-borne illnesses increases and the geographic areas in which they are found expand, health workers increasingly must be able to distinguish the diverse, and often overlapping, clinical presentations of these diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sapi's work includes clinical trials with Curza, a Provo, Utah, pharmaceutical research company developing a new drug that aims to penetrate the biofilm to more effectively treat the disease. (wordpress.com)
  • Having done an initial clinical trial at UNH that found the drug to be 60 percent more effective in treating Lyme disease than traditional antiobiotics, Curza now is entering a second phase that at the University of California, Davis that will test the drug on mice. (wordpress.com)
  • His commitments to investing research/basic clinical science to Lyme are unparalleled. (lymediseaseaction.org.uk)
  • His great interest in the clinical aspects of infectious disease has led him to become a member of many professional societies in this field. (lymediseaseaction.org.uk)
  • His clinical work has involved advising upon infectious disease for cardiac transplant patients, advising on antibiotics and their use, teaching at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and becoming involved in clinical research associated with these fields. (lymediseaseaction.org.uk)
  • While Lyme disease is a clinical diagnosis, the laboratory can provide useful and necessary information for the diagnostic process. (medcapsules.com)
  • Lyme disease is a problematic diagnosis because it is a complicated clinical entity. (medcapsules.com)
  • antibiotics
  • In the US, neuroborreliosis is typically treated with intravenous antibiotics which cross the blood-brain barrier, such as penicillins, ceftriaxone, or cefotaxime. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11 In contrast, if the SF-36 was used to determine Quality of Life (QOL) in post-Lyme patients, the average SF-36 physical component summary (40±9, range 29-44) and mental component summary (39±14, range 23-46) of the QOL assessment were worse than the general USA population, and they could be significantly improved by anti-Lyme antibiotics (46% versus 18%, p =0.007). (blogspot.com)
  • infections
  • Patients with neurodegenerative diseases and behavioral disorders often have systemic bacterial, viral, and/or fungal infections that are important in disease progression and severity. (townsendletter.com)
  • 1 In addition to genetic changes and changes in gene expression, it is thought that nutritional deficiencies, head trauma, environmental toxins, chronic bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune immunological responses, vascular diseases, accumulation of fluid in the brain, changes in neurotransmitter concentrations, and other causes are involved in various neurodegenerative diseases. (townsendletter.com)
  • An attractive model for neurodegeneration resulting in neurological disease involves the action of toxic products produced as a result of chronic bacterial and/or viral infections. (townsendletter.com)
  • B . hispanica and B . crocidurae infections have been detected in northern and southern Morocco, respectively, along with the tick vectors responsible for their transmission ( Ornithodoros erraticus and O . sonrai , respectively) ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In the first part of this review we considered neurodegenerative and neurobehavioural diseases and the findings that these diseases commonly are associated with systemic and central nervous system bacterial and viral infections. (blogspot.com)
  • 1 In this second part we continue with psychiatric diseases, autoimmune diseases, fatiguing illnesses, and other chronic diseases where chronic infections play an important role. (blogspot.com)
  • neurological
  • 1-5 One of the biochemical changes found in essentially all neurological degenerative diseases is the over-expression of oxidative free radical compounds (oxidative stress) that cause lipid, protein, and genetic structural changes. (townsendletter.com)
  • Can microbes and immune reactions to them actually contribute to cognitive decline, degenerative neurological disease, developmental disabilities, mental illness, personality changes and, at the most extreme, even violent and criminal behavior? (psychologytoday.com)
  • Although most patients with Lyme/tick-borne disease do not become violent, a small percent of patients who become infected develop a type of neurological dysfunction that can increase their risk of aggressiveness. (psychologytoday.com)
  • ALS is a motor neuron disease, also spelled "motor neurone disease", which is a group of neurological disorders that selectively affect motor neurons, the cells that control voluntary muscles of the body, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), primary lateral sclerosis, progressive muscular atrophy, progressive bulbar palsy, pseudobulbar palsy, and spinal muscular atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • incidence
  • Those wishing to know the incidence of tick-borne diseases in their town or state can search the LMZ surveillance database. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the most part, the causes and mechanisms of this collection of brain diseases remain largely unknown, and they are increasing in incidence in the developed as well as the underdeveloped world. (townsendletter.com)
  • Africa
  • With so many vectors, the underlying assumption behind this checklist is that Lyme is not rare in North America, Europe, South America, Russia, Africa or Asia. (lymebook.com)
  • The disease is rarely detected in northern Africa and Mediterranean countries ( 3 , 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • patients
  • showed that patients with neuroborreliosis demonstrate a blood brain barrier disturbance with 62 % showing an elevated albumin ratio and 60 % revealing an increased IgG index, indicative of intrathecal IgG synthesis. (upmc.edu)
  • In working with a number of patients with Lyme/tick-borne diseases it is apparent to many clinicians these conditions can cause reduced frustration tolerance, irritability, depression , cognitive impairments and mood swings, but more significantly, in a few patients, suicidal and aggressive tendencies. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Studies were performed, some on large numbers of patients, to investigate whether a correlation exists between chronic Lyme disease (defined by seropositivity) and psychiatric disorders. (blogspot.com)
  • Because of its action on glutamate receptors, we are hypothesizing that it will help to decrease pain even further in patients with Lyme-related pain. (wordpress.com)
  • Dr. Jemsek s Clinic sees more new patients for Lyme Disease than any other facility in the country. (lymediseaseaction.org.uk)
  • More recently he became involved in the care of patients with Lyme Disease and he is a member of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS). (lymediseaseaction.org.uk)
  • bacterium
  • Transmission of the bacterium that causes Lyme disease is well understood to require a substantial feeding period. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because OspA allows the bacterium to adhere to the gut of the tick by binding to the tick receptor for OspA (TROSPA) to colonize. (davidson.edu)
  • transmit
  • In fact, Ornithodoros turicata ticks have been known to transmit spirochetes in the laboratory setting after 7 years without a blood meal. (medscape.com)
  • occur
  • There appears to be a genetic link to neurodegenerative diseases, but the genetic changes that occur and the changes in gene expression that are found in these diseases are complex and not related to simple genetic mutations, deletions, or amplifications. (townsendletter.com)
  • Most Ornithodoros tick bites occur at night and go unnoticed in most individuals. (medscape.com)