• hormones
  • Usually, in critical illness (e.g. sepsis, myocardial infarction and other causes of shock) thyroid function is tuned down to result in low-T3 syndrome and, occasionally, also low TSH concentrations, low-T4 syndrome and impaired plasma protein binding of thyroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes the production of thyroid hormones and subsequent growth and vascularisation of the thyroid. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was a major development that allowed further extensive studies on the mechanisms of thyroid hormones physiology and metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune thyroid disease
  • Preventable environmental factors, including high iodine intake, selenium deficiency, as well as infectious diseases and certain drugs, have been implicated in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease in genetically predisposed individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • follicular
  • There are four main types - papillary thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newly reclassified variant: noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features is considered an indolent tumor of limited biologic potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Follicular thyroid cancer (10% to 20% of cases) - occasionally seen in patients with Cowden syndrome Medullary thyroid cancer (5% to 8% of cases) - cancer of the parafollicular cells, often part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • iodine
  • At the AACE 2017 Annual Meeting, Sarah Fishman, MD, PhD, of Lenox Hill Hospital, in New York, NY, presented a case report of a patient who developed thyroid disease after taking 2000 mcg per day of iodine in the form of a nutritional supplement containing iodine. (truemedmd.com)
  • The iodine did not cause the un derlying thyroid disease of toxic nodular goiter. (truemedmd.com)
  • Iodine is contra-indicated as this will cause thyroid storm and thyro-toxicosis. (truemedmd.com)
  • The primary treatment of thyroid storm is with organic iodine and antithyroid drugs (propylthiouracil or methimazole) to reduce synthesis and release of thyroid hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radioiodine therapy involves taking iodine-131 by mouth, which is then concentrated in the thyroid and destroys it over weeks to months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental exposure to ionizing radiation from both natural background sources and artificial sources is suspected to play a significant role, and there are significant increased rates of thyroid cancer in those exposed to mantlefield radiation for lymphoma, and those exposed to iodine-131 following the Chernobyl, Fukushima, Kyshtym, and Windscale nuclear disasters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decreased iodine leads to decreased thyroid hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • endocrine
  • Principles, Practice, and Clinical Cases is a superb guide for general surgeons and endocrine and ENT surgeons operating on the thyroid. (thieme.de)
  • Background: Thyroid diseases are one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting the general population. (scopemed.org)
  • This endocrine pattern is referred to as euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) or thyroid allostasis in critical illness, tumours, uraemia and starvation (TACITUS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroid cancer accounts for less than 1% of all cancer in the UK, though it is the most common endocrine tumor and makes up greater than 90% of all cancers of the endocrine glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1980s, Dr. Gharib focused his attention on nodular thyroid disease (NTD) and thyroid cancer, making a number of important contributions to endocrine practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • A clinical thyroidologist is a board certified endocrinologist, who cares for a majority of thyroid patients, with few patients experiencing other endocrine conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery
  • The main focuses of general surgery at the Hospital zum Heiligen Geist include thyroid diseases (goiter), gallbladder diseases (gallstones, inflammation), diseases of the caecum (appendicitis), soft tissue disorders (inflammations, swellings, abscesses), rectal disorders (proctology), diseases of the thorax and lungs (suppuration, collapsed lung). (bookinghealth.com)
  • Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands: Expert Consult Premium Edition - Enhanced Online Features and Print. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three treatment options are radioiodine therapy, medications, and thyroid surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery to remove the thyroid is another option. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery may involve removing part or all of the thyroid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery is rarely required to treat the goiter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deferred thyroid surgery can be done later without any change in prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laser ablation of thyroid nodules is performed in day hospital or day-surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • prognosis
  • The following variants can be distinguished (distribution over various subtypes may show regional variation): Papillary thyroid cancer (75% to 85% of cases) - often in young females - excellent prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hashimoto's
  • People who develop Hashimoto's disease often have family members who have thyroid or other autoimmune diseases, and sometimes have other autoimmune diseases themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • thyroxine
  • The abnormality in the channel is thought to lead to shifts of potassium into cells, under conditions of high thyroxine (thyroid hormone) levels, usually with an additional precipitant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levothyroxine, also known as L-thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4). (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone replace
  • The purported benefits of the subtotal approach include a reduced morbidity profile with respect to recurrent laryngeal (RLN) injury and hypoparathyroidism as well as a reduced need for thyroid hormone replacement therapy. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, thyroid insufficiency and consequent need for thyroid hormone replacement therapy are only infrequently eradicated [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • disease
  • This is different from the thyroid condition called Grave's disease, as Grave's disease causes a hyper-function from external factors such as immunoglobulin that activate the TSH receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroid disease may also cause muscle weakness in the form of thyrotoxic myopathy, but this is constant rather than episodic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms of thyroid disease vary depending on the type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of thyroid disease varies based on the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of 131 I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects. (scielo.br)
  • The research subjects were 94 consecutive patients with suspicious or proven malignant thyroid nodules who had surgical procedures during a 12 month time period. (appliedradiology.com)
  • citation needed] The prevalence of cancer is higher in males, patients under 20 years old or over 70 years old, and patients with a history of head and neck irradiation or a family history of thyroid cancer. (wikipedia.org)