• gases
  • The risk of DCS increases when diving for extended periods or at greater depth, without ascending gradually and making the decompression stops needed to slowly reduce the excess pressure of inert gases dissolved in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this model, pain only DCS is modelled by a single tissue which is diffusion-limited for gas uptake, and bubble-formation during decompression causes "phase equilibration" of partial pressures between dissolved and free gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • He became interested in deep diving and developed tables for mixed-gas decompression, supported by Albert A. Bühlmann who suggested suitable gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • International standard ISO 24801-3 includes: Prerequisites for training, including age and health requirements, Required theoretical knowledge regarding scuba and basic diving equipment, the basic physics of diving, decompression management and dive planning, medical and psychological problems related to diving, the diving environment and the use of nitrox breathing gases, Required scuba skills in confined and open water, Practical training parameters, Evaluation of knowledge and practical skills. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiology
  • Early decompression work was done with Hugh LeMessurier's aeromedicine group at the department of Physiology, University of Adelaide. (wikipedia.org)
  • A means of compliance to the requirements of 25.841(a) may be demonstrated through the use of the depressurization exposure integral method described herein that provides the quantitative means to ensure that an airplane design meets the intent of the regulation with respect to protecting human physiology following a rapid decompression. (mrcabinpressure.com)
  • bubble
  • For plausible decompression paths, R increases exponentially with time-leading, potentially, to larger isotopic fractionation of species partitioned into the growing bubble. (deepdyve.com)
  • Models which include bubble phase have produced decompression profiles with slower ascents and deeper initial decompression stops as a way of curtailing bubble growth and facilitating early elimination, in comparison with the models which consider only dissolved phase gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clearly any method which increases the unsaturation would allow faster decompression, as the concentration gradient would be greater without risk of bubble formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • During his diving career Gernhardt attended graduate school at the University of Pennsylvania and developed a new theoretical based on tissue gas bubble dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The model is based on the assumption that phase separation during decompression is random, yet highly probable, in body tissue, and that a bubble will continue to grow by acquiring gas from adjacent saturated tissue, at a rate depending on the local free/dissolved concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • He considers that the RGBM implements the theoretical model in these aspects and also supports the efficacy of recently developed safe diving practice due to its dual phase mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixtures
  • method of comparing decompression requirements for air and a given nitrox mix The equivalent air depth (EAD) is a way of approximating the decompression requirements of breathing gas mixtures that contain nitrogen and oxygen in different proportions to those in air, known as nitrox. (wikipedia.org)
  • minimize
  • Pearl divers were paid according to the quantity of pearl shell they harvested, and this was a strong incentive to minimize unproductive decompression time. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitrogen
  • however, using pure oxygen is not an option for decompression at the pressures for which argox would be used in diving, and no direct comparison of argon to nitrogen was done. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theoretical studies of inert and metabolic gas dynamics in phocids and odontocetes, using a model that was calibrated against actual measured gas levels, show that marine mammals live with extremely high nitrogen levels [ 15 - 17 ] and allometric scaling of risk suggests that these levels would cause greater than 50 per cent DCS risk in land mammals [ 16 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • procedures
  • Different sets of procedures are used by commercial , military , scientific and recreational divers, though there is considerable overlap where similar equipment is used, and some concepts are common to all decompression procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk of DCS caused by diving can be managed through proper decompression procedures and contracting it is now uncommon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Navy report concluded that the pearl divers were not following the recommendations of the navy diving manual, and in particular were not following Haldanian decompression procedures, standard at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • They arrived in Broome just in time to document the pearling industry's empirically derived decompression procedures developed over the precious century during the boom period of pearl shell collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1963 there were only 8 luggers still operating, but the divers still used the decompression procedures evolved by trial and error over the previous century. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was no evidence of any medical, mathematical or scientific input to these purely trial and error derived decompression procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also worked on the development of new portable life support systems and decompression procedures for extra-vehicular activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • depth
  • This depth is the theoretical maximum which can be safely attained with any two-component argon/oxygen mix: a larger fraction of oxygen than about 50% will result in oxygen toxicity before this depth, and a larger fraction of argon than about 50% will result in argon narcosis before this depth. (wikipedia.org)
  • For humans breathing air while diving, the only current method of avoiding DCS is to carefully control the ascent according to published guidelines for dive depth, duration and rate of decompression to avoid critical super-saturation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This implementation offers both a depth ceiling and a depth floor for the decompression stops. (wikipedia.org)
  • pressure
  • The pressure induced decrease in the rate of CO binding to haemoglobin was adjusted to normobaric conditions using a theoretical approach. (bmj.com)
  • aircraft
  • DCS most commonly refers to problems arising from underwater diving decompression (i.e., during ascent), but may be experienced in other depressurisation events such as emerging from a caisson, flying in an unpressurised aircraft at altitude, and extravehicular activity from spacecraft. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theoretical basis of this approach rests with the results of animal decompression studies, Neurological Sequelae of Prolonged Decompression , Aerospace Medicine, A.N. Nicholson and J.R. Ernsting, April 1967, and Neurological Study of Simulated Decompression in Supersonic Transport Aircraft , Aerospace Medicine, J.B. Brierley and A. N. Nicholson, August 1969 (References 4 and 5). (mrcabinpressure.com)
  • navy
  • Compressed air diving was performed in a dry walk-in chamber and the United States Navy decompression table was followed. (bmj.com)