• putamen
  • The term originates from the Latin "striatus", meaning "striped", referring to the caudatolenticar bridges of grey matter crossing the internal capsule from the putamen to the caudate nucleus 2 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • lateral habenula
  • The lateral habenula functions to oppose the action of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus in the acquisition of avoidance responses but not the processing of avoidance later on when it is a memory, motivation or its execution. (wikipedia.org)
  • pineal gland
  • The medial habenula sends outputs of glutamate, substance P and acetylcholine to the periaqueductal gray via the interpeduncular nucleus as well as to the pineal gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • modulate
  • The dorsal raphe nucleus and cerebellum appear to modulate some forms of reward-related cognition (i.e., associative learning, motivational salience, and positive emotions) and behaviors as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • reward
  • Nucleus accumbens: involved in reward, pleasure, and addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Recent exploration of the habenular nuclei has begun to associate the structure with an organism's current mood, feeling of motivation, and reward recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Function: The shell of the nucleus accumbens is involved in the cognitive processing of reward, including subjective "liking" reactions to certain pleasurable stimuli, motivational salience, and positive reinforcement. (wikipedia.org)
  • the basal ganglia portion of the loop drives activity within the reward system. (wikipedia.org)
  • midbrain
  • By way of the fasciculus retroflexus (habenulointerpeduncular tract) it projects to the interpeduncular nucleus and other paramedian cell groups of the midbrain tegmentum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The visual system transmits visual information from the retina within the eyes to the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe as well as the pretectal nuclei and superior colliculi of the midbrain. (radiopaedia.org)
  • region
  • In 1954, Olds and Milner found that rats with metal electrodes implanted into their nucleus accumbens, as well as their septal nuclei, repeatedly pressed a lever activating this region, and did so in preference to eating and drinking, eventually dying of exhaustion. (wikipedia.org)