• responses
  • Importantly, Th2 responses are associated with the development of strong antibody responses, particularly IgG1 and IgE, which in certain helminth infections are implicated in resistance to reinfection ( 10 - 12 ). (rupress.org)
  • helminths and antigens derived from them inherently induce Th2-polarized responses ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • These findings have significant implications with regard to current therapeutic goals in asthma and allergy and suggest that conversion of Th2-dominated allergic inflammatory responses into Th1-dominated responses may lead to further problems. (jci.org)
  • Oberley-Deegan, R.E. The Metalloporphyrin Antioxidant, MnTE-2-PyP, Inhibits Th2 Cell Immune Responses in an Asthma Model. (mdpi.com)
  • IFNγ and IL-12 Restrict Th2 Responses during Helminth/Plasmodium Co-Infection and Promote IFNγ from Th2 Cells. (nih.gov)
  • Immunity to Plasmodium or helminths requires divergent CD4+ T cell-driven responses, dominated by IFNγ or IL-4, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we observed reduced anti-helminth Th2 cell responses and compromised anti-helminth immunity during Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Plasmodium chabaudi co-infection. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, blockade of IL-12 and IFNγ during co-infection partially preserved anti-helminth Th2 responses. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we demonstrate that autophagy is essential for maintenance of balanced CD4(+) T cell responses in the intestine. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Selective deletion of Atg16l1 in T cells in mice resulted in spontaneous intestinal inflammation that was characterized by aberrant type 2 responses to dietary and microbiota antigens, and by a loss of Foxp3(+) Treg cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These findings provide new insights into the reciprocal control of distinct intestinal TH cell responses by autophagy, with important implications for understanding and treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Healing and nonhealing Leishmania major infections have been correlated with polarized Th1 and Th2 responses, respectively. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Epithelial cells that line the conducting airways provide the initial barrier and innate immune responses to the abundant particles, microbes, and allergens that are inhaled throughout life. (jci.org)
  • Thus, functional reprogramming of unfavorably differentiated Th2 cells may facilitate the establishment of protective immune responses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Th1/Th2 paradigm is a cornerstone for our understanding of T cell responses ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • It conveniently subdivides T cell immune responses into those specialized for defense against intracellular pathogens including viruses and some bacteria (Th1), and a second for defense against large extracellular pathogens such as helminths. (rupress.org)
  • In mice deficient in Stat-6, a Th2 transcription factor, IL-4 signaling is abolished and Th2 responses are absent. (rupress.org)
  • Nevertheless, these mice are still capable of mounting T cell-dependent antibody responses (although not IgE, an isotype for mast cell activation). (rupress.org)
  • The discovery of the various Th1- and Th2-related transcription factors cemented the validity of the Th1/Th2 paradigm, but what remained unclear was the precise role of Th1 cytokine-producing, or Th2 cytokine-producing cells in different immune responses. (rupress.org)
  • In agreement with reduced Th2 responses, ICOS-/- mice expressed reduced germinal center formation and IgG1 and IgE antibody titers in response to immunization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process, termed Homologous desensitization, serves as a physiological limiter of cell responses to DP2 activators. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells help suppress or regulate immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on these findings it seems to be apparent that TH9 cells have a role in autoimmunity and allergic responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Hi Immunonetters, The discrimination between Th1 and Th2 phenotypes was established from data about T cell clones derived from mice. (bio.net)
  • We find that after helminth infection, or immunization with helminth antigens, reactive lymphoid organs of 4get IL-4/GFP reporter mice contain populations of IL-4/GFP-expressing CD4 + T cells that display the TFH markers CXCR5, PD-1, and ICOS. (rupress.org)
  • Consistent with a relationship between Th2 and TFH cells, IL-4 protein production, reported by expression of huCD2 in IL-4 dual reporter (4get/KN2) mice, was a robust marker of TFH cells in LNs responding to helminth antigens. (rupress.org)
  • TFH cell development after immunization failed to occur in mice lacking B cells or CD154. (rupress.org)
  • The relationship of TFH cells to the Th2 lineage was confirmed when TFH cells were found to develop from CXCR5 − PD-1 − IL-4/GFP + CD4 + T cells after their transfer into naive mice and antigen challenge in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • We find that in mice infected with S. mansoni , or in mice immunized with an extract of schistosome eggs, TFH cells comprise a major component of the Th cell response and express genes that would normally be considered markers of Th2 cells. (rupress.org)
  • Th1, Th2, and Th0 lines were generated from ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice and transferred into lymphocyte-deficient, OVA-treated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. (jci.org)
  • Surprisingly, Th1 cells did not attenuate Th2 cell-induced airway hyperreactivity and inflammation in either SCID mice or in OVA-immunized immunocompetent BALB/c mice, but rather caused severe airway inflammation. (jci.org)
  • MnTE-2-PyP, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, inhibited OVA-induced airway inflammation in mice suggesting an effect on Th2 responsiveness. (mdpi.com)
  • Using newly established triple cytokine reporter mice (Il4gfpIfngyfpIl17aFP635), we demonstrated that Il4gfp+ Th2 cells purified from in vitro cultures or isolated ex vivo from helminth-infected mice up-regulated IFNγ following adoptive transfer into Rag1-/- mice infected with P. chabaudi. (nih.gov)
  • Functionally, Th2 cells that up-regulated IFNγ were transcriptionally re-wired and protected recipient mice from high parasitemia. (nih.gov)
  • Th2 cells become IL-12 responsive following adoptive transfer.A and B). CD4+Il4gfp+in vitro Th2 cells or naïve CD4 cells were transferred to Rag1-/-mice for 2 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • CD4+TCRβ+ cells were then sorted from spleens of recipient mice and treated with 10ng/mL IL-12 for 15 minutes (blue) (or untreated, red) and then stained for pSTAT4 by FACS. (nih.gov)
  • C-G). Naïve CD4+ T cells or in vitro Th2 cells (CD4+TCRβ+Il4gfp+Ifngyfp-Il17aFP635-) were transferred to Rag1-/-recipient mice for 14 days. (nih.gov)
  • We tested the role of IL-12 by transferring naïve or Il4gfp+ Th2 cells to Rag1-/-mice and blocking IL-12 prior to and after P. chabaudi infection (Fig 7C). (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with this, adoptive transfer of effector Th2 cells into naive mice followed by exposure to inhaled Ag induces features of asthma, including eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and AHR ( 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ), demonstrating that these cells are fully capable of producing the asthma phenotype. (jimmunol.org)
  • Specific ablation of Atg16l1 in Foxp3(+) Treg cells in mice demonstrated that autophagy directly promotes their survival and metabolic adaptation in the intestine. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the study presented here, a stable cell surface marker expressed on Th2 cells, T1/ST2, has been used to assess the distribution of CD4(+)T1/ST2(+) T cells in different organs of healer and nonhealer strains of mice during the course of L. major infection. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • however, CD4(+) T1/ST2(+) T cells could be enriched from the lymphoid organs of infected nonhealer but riot from healer strains of mice. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • The highest frequency of CD4(+) T1/ST2(+)T cells was detected in the footpads of mice with nonhealing disease, showing that CD4(+) T1/ST2(+) T cells home to the footpads. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Since the majority of parasites persist at the local site of infection in nonhealing BALB/c mice, these results show that CD4(+) T1/ST2(+) T cells are localized at the site of active infection and inflammation in this model. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • BALB/c mice transferred with in vitro-differentiated antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 cells were intratracheally or intrarectally challenged with a relevant antigen. (bvsalud.org)
  • Similarly, CD4+ T cells purified from ICOS-/- mice immunized with the protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in alum or complete Freund's Adjuvant have attenuated IL-4 secretion, but similar IFN-g and IL-5 secretion when recalled with KLH. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-33 is constitutively located in the nucleus of structural cells of humans and mice and has a helix-turn-helix domain presumably allowing it to bind to DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested that this cytokine may be a proinflammatory cytokine favoring Th2-type immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In this study, the Th1 and Th2 type MBP-T cells (MBP-Th1 and -Th2) were polarized in vitro, and their effects on the local immune microenvironment and tissue repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) after adoptive immunization were investigated. (naver.com)
  • Most Immunoglobulin A produced by tonsillar B cells in vitro appears to be 7S monomers, although a significant proportion may be l0S dimeric IgA. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • The original Th1/Th2 dichotomy has expanded to include a minimum of four different CD4 T cell lineages, with the concept of neatly pigeonholed irreversibly differentiated lineages requiring some reassessment with recent findings of plasticity and intermediate phenotypes among various CD4 lineages ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • BHLHE41 is known for its role in the circadian molecular mechanisms that influence sleep quantity as well as its role in immune function and the maturation of T helper type 2 cell lineages associated with humoral immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Transcriptional profiling of TFH cells has revealed a distinct repertoire of expressed genes that demarcates them from Th1, Th2, or Th17 cells ( 3 ), and TFH cells have been reported to differentiate normally in vivo where conditions for Th1, Th2, or Th17 cell development are impaired ( 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • Experimental leishmaniasis is widely used to study the effector function of Th cell subsets in vivo. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Here we show that infection with Th1 cell-promoting lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) reprogrammed otherwise stably committed GATA-3(+) Th2 cells to adopt a GATA-3(+)T-bet(+) and interleukin-4(+)interferon-gamma(+) "Th2+1" phenotype that was maintained in vivo for months. (ox.ac.uk)
  • adoptive
  • Using an adoptive transfer system, we assessed the roles of Th1, Th2, and Th0 cells in a mouse model of asthma and examined the capacity of Th1 cells to counterbalance the proasthmatic effects of Th2 cells. (jci.org)
  • These results indicate that MBP-Th2 adoptive transfer has beneficial effects on the injured spinal cord, in which the increased number of Th2 cells may alter the local microenvironment from one primarily populated by Th1 and M1 cells to another dominated by Th2, Treg, and M2 cells and is conducive for SCI repair. (naver.com)
  • genes
  • These findings demonstrate Th2 lineage heterogeneity, in which the IL5 gene is regulated in a hierarchical manner relative to other Th2 genes. (jimmunol.org)
  • As acceptance of the Th1/Th2 paradigm increased among immunologists, so too has the effort to identify Th1- or Th2-associated genes or molecules. (rupress.org)
  • The gene encodes for a transcription factor that belongs to the Hairy/Enhancer of Split (Hes) subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix factor genes which encode transcriptional repressors that function as downstream targets to regulate cell fate during tissue development. (wikipedia.org)
  • PcG gene products form complexes via protein-protein interaction and maintain the transcription repression of genes involved in embryogenesis, cell cycles, and tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • MnTE-2-PyP suppressed CD25 expression on OVA-specific Th2 cells, which implied that MnTE-2-PyP can inhibit the activation of Th2 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Cytostatics inhibit cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • As evidenced by its initial discovery as a receptor for PGD2 in T-helper type 2 cells, activated DP2 triggers Gi alpha subunit-linked heterotrimeric G proteins to dissociate into their component a) Gi alpha subunits (also termed Giα subunits) which simulate phospholipase C to cleave phosphatidylinositol triphosphate into inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) and b) G beta-gamma complex of subunits (Gβγ) which inhibit adenyl cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of TH9 cells is not absolutely clear yet but so far it seems that they main physiological role is defense against helminthis infections and it was also shown that TH9 cells are able to inhibit melanoma cells growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The Th2 gene locus is located on human chromosome 5q31 and mouse chromosome 11. (jimmunol.org)
  • Inducible T-cell costimulator is an immune checkpoint protein that in humans is encoded by the ICOS gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CD28 and CTLA-4 cell-surface receptor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of this gene was detected in various tumor cells, but is limited in neural organs in normal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRF4 binds to the promoter of Il-9 gene in TH9 cells and it is dependent on STAT6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numbers of molecules enhance or dampen IL-9 production and contribute to TH9 development such as: Activin A that can fully substitute the role of TGF-β in TH9 cells, then Jagged2, programmed cell death ligand (PD-L2), cyclooxy- genase (COX)-2, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4 (TNFRSF4 or OX40), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes the alpha chain of the interleukin-4 receptor, a type I transmembrane protein that can bind interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 to regulate IgE antibody production in B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsets
  • The relationship of T follicular helper (TFH) cells to other T helper (Th) subsets is controversial. (rupress.org)
  • However, the lineage relationship of TFH cells to the other Th subsets remains unclear. (rupress.org)
  • Our studies in this area have, on the basis of surface marker expression, identified subsets of Th2 cells ( 15 ), one of which is notable for its expression of PD-1, a molecule that has been reported to be expressed by TFH cells ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Cell surface molecules that reliably mark Th1 or Th2 cells were also sought, and to date the chemokine receptors are probably the most convenient (although by no means ideal) markers of functional subsets. (rupress.org)
  • receptor
  • On the other hand, induction of the T H 2 phenotype from naïve CD4 + T cells requires IL-4 binding of the functional IL-4 receptor and activation of STAT6. (sciencemag.org)
  • Additionally, the authors found that the IL-12 receptor-bearing T H 2 cells continued to synthesize IL-4 even in the presence of IL-12 in the growth medium. (sciencemag.org)
  • Sakaguchi S. Sakaguchi N. Asano M. Itoh M. Toda M. Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25). (springer.com)
  • Th2 cell reprogramming required T cell receptor stimulation, concerted type I and type II interferon and interleukin-12 signals, and T-bet. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this issue, two groups have provided one of the best examples of this concept, by identifying CXCR5 as a chemokine receptor responsible for the follicular homing of a unique subset of T helper cells for antibody production ( 13 )( 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • T and B cells continuously recirculate from blood to lymphoid tissue, gaining entry through their expression of L-selectin and the chemokine receptor CCR7. (rupress.org)
  • PD-L1 binds to its receptor, PD-1, found on activated T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells, to modulate activation or inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • DP2 was found to stimulate the directed movement or chemotaxis of human T-helper type 2 cells (see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model for helper T cells) by binding to a receptor initially termed GPR44 and thereafter CRTH2 (for Chemoattractant Receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-Helper type 2 cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all T cells, they express the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T cell receptor (TCR) consists of both constant and variable regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are required for binding of interleukin-4 to the receptor alpha chain, which is a crucial event for the generation of a Th2-dominated early immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • GATA-3 binds to the Th2 locus control region as well as the IL5 promoter ( IL5p ) and IL13p ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • They induce the lipocortin-1 (annexin-1) synthesis, which then binds to cell membranes preventing the phospholipase A2 from coming into contact with its substrate arachidonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a Th cell encounters and recognises the antigen on an APC, the TCR-CD3 complex binds strongly to the peptide-MHC complex present on the surface of professional APCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • IL-12 treatment of T H 2 cells expressing functional IL-12 receptors did not induce the conversion of these cells into the T H 1 phenotype if the cells were pretreated under T H 2 conditions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Regulation of T:B cell interactions by the inducible costimulator molecule: does ICOS "induce" disease? (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-1 may induce IL-9 in some cases, and IL-33 is able to induce IL-9 in T cells generally. (wikipedia.org)
  • STAT5, downstream factor of IL-2, induce TH9 cells IL-9. (wikipedia.org)
  • airway
  • In this study, we demonstrate that STAT6 in bone marrow-derived myeloid cells was sufficient for the production of CCL17, CCL22, CCL11, and CCL24 and for Th2 lymphocyte and eosinophil recruitment into the allergic airway. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, STAT6 in airway-lining cells did not mediate chemokine production or support cellular recruitment. (jimmunol.org)
  • phenotype
  • Thus, T H 2 cells are resistant to T H 1 conversion, and decreased expression of IL-12Rβ2 is not necessary for the establishment of the T H 2 phenotype. (sciencemag.org)
  • regulatory T cel
  • Natural versus adaptive regulatory T cells. (springer.com)
  • Conversion of peripheral CD4+CD25- naive T cells to CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells by TGF-beta induction of transcription factor Foxp3. (springer.com)
  • Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. (springer.com)
  • Selective depletion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells induces a scurfy-like disease. (springer.com)
  • Maintenance of the Foxp3-dependent developmental program in mature regulatory T cells requires continued expression of Foxp3. (springer.com)
  • Wing K. Suri-Payer E. Rudin A. CD4+CD25+ -regulatory T cells from mouse to man. (springer.com)
  • Pacholczyk R. Kern J. Singh N. Iwashima M. Kraj P. Ignatowicz L. Nonself-antigens are the cognate specificities of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. (springer.com)
  • plasticity
  • In summary, this study demonstrates that Th2 cells retain substantial plasticity with the ability to produce IFNγ during Plasmodium infection. (nih.gov)
  • However, knowledge on the plasticity of Th2 cell lineage commitment is limited. (ox.ac.uk)
  • allergic
  • These results indicate that antigen-specific Th1 cells may not protect or prevent Th2-mediated allergic disease, but rather may cause acute lung pathology. (jci.org)
  • The evidence, however, demonstrating that Th1 cells actually render salutary effects in allergic disease and asthma, is indirect. (jci.org)
  • TH9 cells are present in the peripheral blood of allergic patients while such a population is rare in non-allergic persons. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • showed that PD-1, up-regulated on activated CD4 T-cells, can bind to PD-L1 expressed on monocytes and induces IL-10 production by the latter. (wikipedia.org)
  • asthma
  • Because Th1 cells antagonize Th2 cell functions, it has been proposed that immune deviation toward Th1 can protect against asthma and allergies. (jci.org)
  • Persistent wheezing in children is predicted by development of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to inhaled allergens ( 5 ), indicating that the development of an inappropriate adaptive Th2-polarized immune response to environmental antigens plays a critical role in the development of asthma. (jci.org)
  • The percentages of IL-9-secreting T cells of atopic patients also correlated with serum IgE in adults with asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • T cell lines specific for purified protein derivative or streptokinase (SK) derived in the presence of P exhibited significant increased ability to produce IL-5 in comparison with T cell lines derived in the absence of P. Moreover, IL-4 was significantly increased in SK-specific T cell lines derived in the presence of P in comparison with SK-specific T cell lines derived in the absence of this hormone. (jimmunol.org)
  • Myelin basic protein (MBP) activated T cells (MBP-T) play an important role in the damage and repair process of the central nervous system (CNS). (naver.com)
  • Mature Th cells express the surface protein CD4 and are referred to as CD4+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a cell surface protein that mediates T cell helper function in a contact-dependent process and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sealing of the space between adjacent cells is mediated by junctional complexes formed by protein connections elaborated by each individual cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • Once activated, phosphorylated STAT6 mediate the transcription of Gata3 and Irf4, which are both necessary for polarization of TH9 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • functions
  • We hypothesized that Th2 heterogeneity could yield Th2 subpopulations with different cytokine expression and effector functions. (jimmunol.org)
  • Regulatory T-cell functions are subverted and converted owing to attenuated Foxp3 expression. (springer.com)
  • Interferons direct Th2 cell reprogramming to generate a stable GATA-3(+)T-bet(+) cell subset with combined Th2 and Th1 cell functions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Ability of TAMs to present tumour-associated antigens is decreased as well as stimulation of the anti-tumour functions of T and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, their functions in TH9 cells are still unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Th1-mediated neutrophil and Th2-mediated eosinophil accumulation in the large intestine, which occurred after intrarectal challenge with the antigen, was indicated by the significant elevation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Activated T cells migrate to the B cell follicles and position themselves at the edge of the follicle, where they meet antigen-primed B cells that have also specifically migrated outwards. (rupress.org)
  • Thereafter, antigen-primed T cells become distributed throughout the entire follicle, presumably to egg on the germinal center reaction. (rupress.org)
  • PD-L1 binding to PD-1 also contributes to ligand-induced TCR down-modulation during antigen presentation to naive T cells, by inducing the up-regulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CBL-b. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a combination of cell to cell interactions (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naïve T cells are those T cells that have never been exposed to the antigen that they are programmed to respond to). (wikipedia.org)
  • The variable region determines what antigen the T cell can respond to. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class II MHC proteins are generally only found on the surface of specialised antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • During an immune response, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) endocytose foreign material (typically bacteria or viruses), which undergoes processing, then travel from the infection site to the lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once at the lymph nodes, the APC begin to present antigen peptides that are bound to Class II MHC, allowing CD4+ T cells that express the specific TCRs against the peptide/MHC complex to activate. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the assistance of a phosphatase present on the intracellular section of CD45 (common leukocyte antigen), these molecules activate major Th cell intracellular pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon subsequent encounters with a given antigen, memory T cells are re-activated using the same TCR pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • These results demonstrate that IL-5 + and IL-5 − Th2 cells, respectively, represent more and less highly differentiated Th2 cell subpopulations. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, the migration of Th1 cells and neutrophils was diminished by blockage of αL/ß2-integrin and ICAM-1, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • antibody
  • However, this neat scheme had one troubling aspect: where do helper cells for antibody production fit in? (rupress.org)
  • T cell help for antibody production has long been considered a Th2 property ( 2 )( 3 ), although certain Ig class switching relies on IFN-γ. (rupress.org)
  • This diminishes both B cell clone expansion and antibody synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tonsillar (relating to palatine tonsil) B cells can mature to produce all the five major Immunoglobulin (Ig, aka antibody) classes. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung
  • Selective depletion of CD11b + myeloid cells in the lung identified these cells as the critical cellular source for the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22. (jimmunol.org)
  • induction
  • Recently, it has become clear that a subset of CD4 + cells, termed T follicular helper (TFH) cells largely on the basis of their localization in B cell follicles, plays a crucial role in B cell response induction. (rupress.org)
  • LCMV-triggered T-bet induction in adoptively transferred virus-specific Th2 cells was crucial to prevent viral persistence and fatal immunopathology. (ox.ac.uk)
  • distinct
  • Collectively, these data suggest that TFH cells constitute a distinct lineage. (rupress.org)
  • IL-5 + Th2 cells are phenotypically distinct and have epigenetic changes consistent with greater IL5p accessibility. (jimmunol.org)
  • Since the first description of Th1 and Th2 cells, a large body of data has established the basic paradigm of CD4 T cell lineage heterogeneity, with each lineage having distinct molecular, cellular, and functional properties ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • One possible explanation for MBP-T immunization leading to conflicting results may be the different subtypes of T cells are responsible for distinct effects. (naver.com)
  • transcription
  • Regulatory T cell lineage specification by the forkhead transcription factor foxp3. (springer.com)
  • STAT6 repress the expression of transcription factors T-bet and Foxp3 in TH9 cells, that normally block IL-9 production. (wikipedia.org)