• infection
  • Mills, K.H.G., Barnard, A.L., Watkins, J. and Redhead, K. `Cell mediated immunity to Bordetella pertussis: role of Th1 cells in bacterial clearance in a murine respiratory infection model? (tcd.ie)
  • We found that nude mice, which are deficient in T cells, developed a persistent infection and failed to clear the bacteria after aerosol inoculation. (tcd.ie)
  • In the advanced stages of HIV infection, loss of functional CD4+ T cells leads to the symptomatic stage of infection known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • During an immune response, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) endocytose foreign material (typically bacteria or viruses), which undergoes processing, then travel from the infection site to the lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1, is a retrovirus of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases including very aggressive adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, uveitis, Strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection and some other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a tuberculosis (TB) infection that comes under control: M. tuberculosis cells are engulfed by macrophages after being identified as foreign, but due to an immuno-escape mechanism peculiar to mycobacteria, TB bacteria are able to block the fusion of their enclosing phagosome with lysosomes which would destroy the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • They are essential in B cell antibody class switching, in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T cells, and in maximizing bactericidal activity of phagocytes such as macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • note that macrophages induced by Treg cells fight not only the parasitic disease, but also resist the immune system's response to allergens and the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated CD8+ T cells destroy target cells on contact, whereas activated macrophages produce hydrolytic enzymes and, on presentation with certain intracellular pathogens, transform into multinucleated giant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • This includes the use of T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice, model antigens like ovalbumin, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II tetramers presenting defined peptide sequences, which allows for the detection of T cells specifically recognizing that peptide. (frontiersin.org)
  • Th1, Th2, and Th0 lines were generated from ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice and transferred into lymphocyte-deficient, OVA-treated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. (jci.org)
  • Surprisingly, BDC2.5(+) cells recovered from diabetic NOD.scid mice, in comparison with those from neonate NOD mice, showed predominant IFN-gamma over IL-17 expression, indicating conversion of donor cells into Th1 cells. (nih.gov)
  • C. Averages of the percentage of IL-17 or IFN-γ positive cells gated from the CD4+Tcr-β+ cells (n= 6-8 mice per group analyzed in independent experiments). (nih.gov)
  • B. Diabetes incidence when 1 million Th17 cells from A) were injected into NOD.scid mice. (nih.gov)
  • C. Diabetes incidence when different doses of Th17 cells were transferred into NOD.scid mice. (nih.gov)
  • E. Diabetes incidence when 1 million differentiated BDC2.5 Th17 cells were injected into 7-day-old NOD mice (Results derived from two independent experiments). (nih.gov)
  • CD4 + CD45RB low cells from germfree mice were significantly reduced in their ability to transfer colitis to immune deficient recipients, suggesting the presence of commensal bacteria in the donor mice drives colitogenic T cells into the Ag-experienced/memory T cell pool. (jimmunol.org)
  • Taken together, these data indicate that colitogenic Th1 cells enter into the Ag-experienced pool in normal mice, but that their function is controlled by regulatory T cells and IL-10. (jimmunol.org)
  • Previous studies from this laboratory and others have shown that transfer of CD4 + CD45RB high T cells, a predominantly naive population, from the periphery of normal mice to SCID recipients leads to the development of a Th1-mediated colitis with similarities to IBD in humans ( 3 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • T cells capable of responding to enteric bacteria are present in T cell-restored immune deficient mice with colitis, and are most likely involved in the pathogenesis of the disease ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Recall response of CD4+ OVA-specific TCRtg T cells from CD152−/− or CD152+/+ mice was induced by adding 1 µg/ml OVA323-339 and T cell-depleted APCs. (nih.gov)
  • Adoptive transfer of immune spleen cells into nude or sublethally irradiated immunosuppressed mice before challenge resulted in bacterial clearance within 14 to 21 days. (tcd.ie)
  • Furthermore, transfer of enriched T cells or purified CD4+ T cells but not CD8+ T cells from immune mice conferred a high level of protection. (tcd.ie)
  • Th1 and Th17 cell populations were also expanded in collagen-immunized TNFR p55(-/-) but not p75(-/-) mice. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of IL-12/IL-23 p40 was up-regulated in lymph nodes (LN) from p55(-/-) mice, and the expansion of Th1/Th17 cells was abrogated by blockade of p40. (nih.gov)
  • LN cells from WT, p55 TNFR−/−, and p75 TNFR−/− mice were taken 14 d after immunization with type II collagen in CFA. (nih.gov)
  • The percentage of CD4+ cells in immunized WT mice coexpressing IFNγ and IL-17 was low (∼0.1%) and was not altered in p55−/− or p75−/− mice. (nih.gov)
  • Hi Immunonetters, The discrimination between Th1 and Th2 phenotypes was established from data about T cell clones derived from mice. (bio.net)
  • 2001, Bui and Schreiber, 2007) RAG proteins are necessary for the recombination events necessary to produce TCRs and Igs, and as such RAG-2 deficient mice are incapable of producing functional T, B or NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001) Another experiment involving IFN-γ−/− (Interferon γ) showed that these mice are more likely do develop certain types of cancers as well, and suggests a role of CD4+ T cells in tumor immunity, which produce large amounts of IFN-γ (Street et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002) Perforin deficient mice were also shown to have a reduced ability to ward off MCA induced cancers, suggesting an important role of CD8+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice the vaccination with CD133+ melanoma cells mediated strong anti-tumor activity that resulted in the eradication of parental melanoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • clones
  • CD4 + T cells, derived from PBMCs of healthy donors, were used to obtain T-cell clones. (bmj.com)
  • CD4 + T-cell clones were classified on the basis of their ability to produce IFN-γ and/or IL-17. (bmj.com)
  • T cell clones were polyclonally stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28. (bmj.com)
  • Supernatants from inactivated Th1 or Th17 clones had no effect on EC. (bmj.com)
  • Regarding synoviocytes, supernatants from inactivated clones induced IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA with a stronger effect for Th17 cells (1000 fold versus 100 fold compared to resting synoviocytes, p = 0.045). (bmj.com)
  • I think that in the scope of therapy, the global evaluation of Th1/Th2 balance should lead to better results than the fine description of individual clones. (bio.net)
  • Just as in T cells, clonal deletion and clonal anergy can physically eliminate autoreactive B cell clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Furthermore, individual TCR specificities may be predisposed toward different fates ( 6 ) and may also be regulated by temporal and anatomical antigen expression by the pathogen, factors that might significantly affect some clonal populations differently than the overall polyclonal T cell response ( 7 , 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We compared the phenotypic and functional features of human Th17, Th1, and ex-Th17 cell populations. (jimmunol.org)
  • TNF blockade using TNFR-Fc fusion protein or anti-TNF monoclonal antibody reduced arthritis severity but, unexpectedly, expanded populations of Th1 and Th17 cells, which were shown by adoptive transfer to be pathogenic. (nih.gov)
  • receptor
  • IL-22 binds to a heterodimeric cell surface receptor composed of IL-10R2 and IL-22R1 subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystallization is possible if the N-linked glycosylation sites are removed in mutants of IL-22 bound with high-affinity cell-surface receptor sIL-22R1. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). (wikipedia.org)
  • It forms cell surface complexes with IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 chains resulting in signal transduction through receptor, IL-10R2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all T cells, they express the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T cell receptor (TCR) consists of both constant and variable regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of this receptor and its ligands suggested its role in regulation of monocyte chemotaxis and thymic cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, this receptor may contribute to the proper positioning of activated T cells within the antigenic challenge sites and specialized areas of lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature IFN-γ is an anti-parallel homodimer, which binds to the IFN-γ receptor (IFNGR) complex to elicit a signal within its target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are defined by absence of antigen specific B or T cell receptor because of the lack of recombination activating gene (RAG). (wikipedia.org)
  • They comprise ILC3s and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells: ILC3s are a lymphoid cell population that can produce IL-22 and expresses NKp46 (an NK cell activating receptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • of several peptide sequences which can be both foreign and self in nature, a single antibody or TCR (T cell receptor) can be activated by even a few[clarification needed Maybe just a few? (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • These findings have implications for therapeutic strategies that target IL-17, because these may not inhibit pathogenic ex-Th17 cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Crosslinking
  • Crosslinking of CD152 together with CD3 and CD28 stimulation on activated Th1 cells increased expression of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CCR7, which in turn enhanced cell migration. (nih.gov)
  • immunization
  • The percentage of CD4+ T cells in the LN was determined by flow cytometry on day 14 after immunization. (nih.gov)
  • subsets
  • However, control of immune pathology is not restricted to CD4 + CD25 + cells, and there is evidence that CD4 + CD25 − T cells also possess some regulatory activity ( 18 , 20 , 25 ), although the relationship between these phenotypically distinct subsets of T R cells is not known. (jimmunol.org)
  • inducer
  • Lymphoid tissue inducer ('LTi') cells are a subset of ILCs expressing molecules required for the development of lymphoid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Th17 Cells Are More Protective Than Th1 Cells Against the Intracellular Parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, Th17 cells are not believed to have a significant function against intracellular infections. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In contrast to this paradigm, we have discovered that Th17 cells provide robust protection against Trypanosoma cruzi, the intracellular protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Th17 cells confer significantly stronger protection against T. cruzi-related mortality than even Th1 cells, traditionally thought to be the CD4+ T cell subset most important for immunity to T. cruzi and other intracellular microorganisms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cellular responsiveness is restored after dephosphorylation of intracellular receptors and subsequent recycling to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the assistance of a phosphatase present on the intracellular section of CD45 (common leukocyte antigen), these molecules activate major Th cell intracellular pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • In particular, we address the issue of bystander activation of naïve T cells and non-cognate stimulation of activated and memory T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • B) Migration of CD152−/− and CD152+/+ T cells in primary stimulation: CD4+ OVA-specific TCRtg T cells were stimulated with 1 µg/ml OVA323-339 and T cell-depleted APCs. (nih.gov)
  • C) Specific migration of antigen-specific stimulated Th1 cells in a recall response: Primary stimulation and recall response of CD4+CD62L+ OVA-specific TCRtg T cells were performed under Th1 conditions with 1 µg/ml OVA-peptide in the presence of 200 µg/ml neutralizing anti-CD152 Fab fragments or hamster control Fab fragments. (nih.gov)
  • The proliferative brake on Th17 cells appeared to be lifted because ex-Th17 cells proliferated more than Th17 cells after stimulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Endothelial Cells
  • Here, we focus on the synoviocytes from RA patients and Endothelial Cells (EC) and compare their interaction with Th1 and Th17 cells. (bmj.com)
  • HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) were used as a model for EC and synoviocytes were isolated from synovium from RA patients. (bmj.com)
  • Sialyl-Lewisx is a necessary partner for the three selectins that bind the leukocyte and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • These results indicate that antigen-specific Th1 cells may not protect or prevent Th2-mediated allergic disease, but rather may cause acute lung pathology. (jci.org)
  • Bars indicate migrated CD4+ cells as percentage of input cells. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, these data indicate that human ex-Th17 cells are functionally distinct from Th1 and Th17 cells, and suggest that they may play a pathogenic role at sites of autoimmunity, such as the rheumatoid arthritis joint where they accumulate. (jimmunol.org)
  • immunity
  • Understanding of the antitumor immunity role of CD4+ T cells has grown substantially since the late 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further knock out experiments showed important roles of αβ T cells, γδ T cells and NK cells in tumour immunity (Girardi et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • naive
  • PCR analysis at the single-cell level revealed that RORC2 mRNA was expressed by none of the CD4 + CD161 − and present only in a minority of CD4 + CD161 + naive Th cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Interestingly, IL-10 was not absolutely required for CD4 + CD25 + T cell-mediated inhibition of colitis induced by transfer of naive CD4 + CD45RB high cells, suggesting a differential requirement for IL-10 in the regulation of naive and Ag-experienced T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • potent
  • Th1 cells were more potent inducers of IL-6, IL-8 and tissue factor mRNA in EC than Th17 which had no significant effect (5, 12.5, 7.5 fold respectively compared to control). (bmj.com)
  • immune response
  • Salmonella has been a model pathogen for examining CD4 T cell activation and effector functions for many years due to the strength of the Th1 cell response observed during Salmonella infections, the relative ease of use of Salmonella , the availability of Salmonella -specific T cell reagents, and the well-characterized nature of the model system, the pathogen, and the immune response elicited. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cancer cells, through mutation, may actually have mutations in some of the proteins involved in antigen presentation, and as such, evade an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extensive research shows that parasitic worms have the ability to deactivate certain immune system cells, leading to a gentler immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • antagonize
  • We utilized two genetic mouse models, which differentially antagonize PGE 2 levels, to examine the effect on Th17 cells and disease outcomes in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis. (hindawi.com)
  • Because Th1 cells antagonize Th2 cell functions, it has been proposed that immune deviation toward Th1 can protect against asthma and allergies. (jci.org)
  • arise
  • ILC1s are weakly cytotoxic cells closely related to Group 3 ILCs, from which they even appear to arise. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • Recent evidence has shown that altering the frequency of a given T cell clone can impact the activation strength, kinetics, and memory formation of the resulting T cell response ( 1 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Mechanistically, Th17 cells can directly protect infected cells through the IL-17A-dependent induction of NADPH oxidase, involved in the phagocyte respiratory burst response, and provide indirect help through IL-21-dependent activation of CD8+ T cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • On day 6 of recall response cells were analyzed in chemotaxis assays. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, if you focus your attention on global response and not on single cells, I think that it is possible to characterize either Th1 like response or Th2 like response. (bio.net)
  • The type of T-cell response generated (e.g. (mdpi.com)
  • Th1 or Th2) will determine the efficacy of the therapy, and it is generally assumed that a type-1 response is needed for optimal cancer treatment. (mdpi.com)
  • IL-22 along with IL-17 is rapidly produced by splenic LTi-like cells and also produced by Th17 cells and likely plays a role in the coordinated response of both adaptive innate immune systems, autoimmunity and tissue regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFN-γ released by Th1 cells is also important in regulating the Th2 response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the other types, it is not antibody-mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory T cel
  • 2007). Also, it has been observed that some cancer patients exhibit higher than normal levels of CD4+/CD25+ T cells, a subset of T cells often called regulatory T cells, for their known immunosuppressive actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • Herein, we discuss the use of Salmonella as a model pathogen to explore the complex interaction of T cells with their inflammatory environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Background Interaction between different types of T-cells and surrounding non-hematopoietic cells is essential for the proper function of the immune system. (bmj.com)
  • bacteria
  • Recipients of CD4+ T cells cleared the bacteria from the lungs within 20 days of challenge, at which time B. pertussis-specific antibodies in the serum were undetectable. (tcd.ie)
  • adoptive transfer
  • Using an adoptive transfer system, we assessed the roles of Th1, Th2, and Th0 cells in a mouse model of asthma and examined the capacity of Th1 cells to counterbalance the proasthmatic effects of Th2 cells. (jci.org)
  • mRNA
  • While activated Th1 supernatants had a strong effect on EC and increased the expression of IL-6, IL-8, E-selectin, and tissue factor mRNA (98.12, 89 fold respectively, compare to control), Th17 supernatants had no effect. (bmj.com)
  • Th17 cells were most effective to stimulate IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression in synoviocytes compared to Th1 (100 fold versus 24 for IL-6 mRNA, p = 0.027). (bmj.com)