• bacteria
  • Although tetrodotoxin was discovered in these fish and found in several other aquatic animals (e.g., in blue-ringed octopuses, rough-skinned newts, and moon snails), it is actually produced by certain infecting or symbiotic bacteria like Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio as well as other species found in animals[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have surmised that fugu's tetrodotoxin comes from eating other animals infested with tetrodotoxin-laden bacteria, to which the fish develops insensitivity over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • squid
  • Binding of tetrodotoxin to squid nerve fibers. (rupress.org)
  • Separation of the action potential into a Na-channel spike and a K-channel spike by tetrodotoxin and by tetraethylammonium ion in squid giant axons internally perfused with dilute Na-salt solutions. (rupress.org)
  • found
  • This property is found in similar channels, namely Nav1.8, and has been associated with slower channel kinetics than the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • The effects of tetrodotoxin on sinus node activity were studied by direct perfusion through its nutrient artery. (ahajournals.org)
  • Jiang, J.-M. Effects of (−)-Gallocatechin-3-Gallate on Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons. (mdpi.com)
  • Zhang Y, Jia Y-Y, Guo J-L, Liu P-Q, Jiang J-M. Effects of (−)-Gallocatechin-3-Gallate on Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons. (mdpi.com)
  • current
  • The current proposed study (TEC-006OL) is designed to provide the option for all patients who participated in the TEC-006 study (both tetrodotoxin and placebo-treated) to receive or continue to receive tetrodotoxin treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The percentage block of GCG (1 μM) on tetrodotoxin-resistant Na + current was 45.1% ± 1.1% in 10 min. (mdpi.com)
  • fish
  • Food: Exposure to tetrodotoxin usually occurs through eating improperly prepared fish or possibly through contamination of other food products. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure occurs due to ingestion of fish or other food containing tetrodotoxin. (cdc.gov)
  • skin
  • Recent studies indicate that intramuscular (into a muscle) or subcutaneous (under the skin) injections of tetrodotoxin (TTX) may reduce pain in cancer patients who did not respond to standard therapies. (clinicaltrials.gov)