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  • Bacteria
  • Although tetrodotoxin was discovered in these fish and found in several other aquatic animals (e.g., in blue-ringed octopuses, rough-skinned newts, and moon snails), it is actually produced by certain infecting or symbiotic bacteria like Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio as well as other species found in animals[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • The taxonomic composition of bacteria associated with the proboscis worm Cephalothrix simula was studied and screening of the tetrodotoxin (TTX)-producing bacteria was carried out using confocal laser scanning microscopy and polyclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Researchers have surmised that fugu's tetrodotoxin comes from eating other animals infested with tetrodotoxin-laden bacteria, to which the fish develops insensitivity over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract
  • Abstract -Under Na + -free conditions, low-voltage-activated Ca 2+ currents in cardiomyocytes from various species have been described either as Ni 2+ -sensitive T-type Ca 2+ current ( I Ca(T) ) or as tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Ca 2+ current ( I Ca(TTX) ). (ahajournals.org)
  • skin
  • We investigated the concentration of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in sections of skin containing and lacking red dorsal spots in both Eastern newt ( Notophthalmus viridescens ) efts and adults. (hindawi.com)
  • found
  • This property is found in similar channels, namely Nav1.8, and has been associated with slower channel kinetics than the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Previous studies showed that in rats, combinations of tetrodotoxin (TTX) with bupivacaine had supra-additive effects on sciatic block durations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effects of tetrodotoxin on sinus node activity were studied by direct perfusion through its nutrient artery. (ahajournals.org)
  • Jiang, J.-M. Effects of (−)-Gallocatechin-3-Gallate on Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons. (mdpi.com)
  • Zhang Y, Jia Y-Y, Guo J-L, Liu P-Q, Jiang J-M. Effects of (−)-Gallocatechin-3-Gallate on Tetrodotoxin-Resistant Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons. (mdpi.com)