• tumors
  • PPNAD can be associated with a variety of other manifestations, such as myxomas of the skin, heart, breast and other sites, psammomatous melanotic swannomas involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS), lentigines and blue nevi of the skin and mucosae, growth hormone (GH)-producing adenomas of the pituitary, testicular Sertoli cell tumors, and possibly other neoplasms (adrenocortical and thyroid follicular carcinoma, and ovarian cysts). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • scrotum
  • The resulting hydrocele presents as a painless enlargement of the scrotum, similar to what may be encountered with testicular neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood supply and lymphatic drainage of the testes and scrotum are distinct: The paired testicular arteries arise directly from the abdominal aorta and descend through the inguinal canal, while the scrotum and the rest of the external genitalia is supplied by the internal pudendal artery (itself a branch of the internal iliac artery). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphatic drainage of the testes follows the testicular arteries back to the paraaortic lymph nodes, while lymph from the scrotum drains to the inguinal lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • testes
  • Pre-testicular factors refer to conditions that impede adequate support of the testes and include situations of poor hormonal support and poor general health including: Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to various causes Obesity increases the risk of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many causes for oligospermia including: Pre-testicular factors refer to conditions that impede adequate support of the testes and include situations of poor hormonal support and poor general health including: Hypogonadism due to various causes Drugs, alcohol, smoking Strenuous riding (bicycle riding, horseback riding) Medications, including androgens. (wikipedia.org)