• mammalian
  • The Golgi apparatus present in mammalian cells may be labeled with immunofluorescent probes, but first a candidate protein resident somewhere in the complex must be identified and targeted with a primary mono or polyclonal antibody. (fsu.edu)
  • Polyclonal antibodies raised against the N-terminal 469 peptide residues of giantin react with a number of mammalian species. (fsu.edu)
  • The culture of rat thoracic aorta cells illustrated above was fixed, permeabilized, and blocked with 10-percent normal goat serum in phosphate-buffered saline prior to immunofluorescent labeling with rabbit primary antibodies to giantin, a protein resident in the Golgi complex of mammalian cells. (fsu.edu)
  • For example, the avian protein, in contrast with the mammalian protein, exhibited only minimal binding activity for asialoglycoproteins but interacted strongly with agalactoglycoproteins. (asbmb.org)
  • In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. (mdpi.com)
  • Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. (mdpi.com)
  • Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin expressed in a majority of tissues with broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune regulatory activities. (mdpi.com)
  • Through alternative splicing of the fetal exon and other alternative exons in the N-terminal variable region, the expression of fsTnT during mammalian and avian development undergoes a high molecular to low molecular weight isoform switch in both fast and slow fiber dominant skeletal muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The switch of high to low molecular weight splice forms occurs in avian leg muscles during post hatching development similar to that in developing mammalian skeletal muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, mammalian sialic acid residues are at terminal positions (non-reducing end) in complex glycans, and so viral neuraminidases - which are exo-glycosidase enzymes - use these terminal residues as their substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Interestingly, IR treatment leads to inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity and reduced expression of renal cancer aggressiveness markers caveolin-1, low molecular weight phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase (LMWPTP), and kinase insert domain receptor (a type III receptor tyrosine kinase) (VEGFR-2). (springer.com)
  • By doing so, the telomere ends are able to avoid ATM kinase activation through the creation of a terminal structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence of its binding to dsRNA, the NS1 protein blocks the activation of the dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein has several SH2 and SH3 domains (src-homology domains) and is involved in several signaling pathways, recruiting cytoplasmic proteins in the vicinity of tyrosine kinase through SH2-phosphotyrosine interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name Crk is from "CT10 Regulator of Kinase" where CT10 is the avian virus from which was isolated a protein, lacking kinase domains, but capable of stimulating phosphorylation of tyrosines in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crk should not be confused with Src, which also has cellular (c-Src) and viral (v-Src) forms and is involved in some of the same signaling pathways but is a protein tyrosine-kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), protein kinase A (PKA) specifically phosphorylates serine 276 in the RHD domain in the cytoplasm, controlling NF-κB DNA-binding and oligomerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylation of serine 311 by protein kinase C zeta type (PKCζ) serves the same purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The construct ORF2-3 aa339-507 was used to study the potential binding of avian HEV capsid protein to human and other avian species. (duhnnae.com)
  • For the first time, interactions between avian HEV capsid protein and host cells were investigated demonstrating that aa471 to 507 of the capsid protein are needed to facilitate interaction with different kind of cells from different species. (duhnnae.com)
  • Bacteria were isolated from cloacal swabs taken from 53 avian species belonging to 14 orders, the majority being feral pigeons and various songbirds. (paperity.org)
  • Virus isolated from a human infected with the H5N1 strain in 1997 could bind to oligosaccharides from human as well as avian sources, indicating its species-jumping ability. (abcam.com)
  • Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. (mdpi.com)
  • Sequence analysis showed that human desmuslin was 32% identical and 11% similar to the amino acid sequence of chicken synemin, while the IF proteins vimentin and desmin are more than 80% identical across the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The proteins encoded by Myb genes bind to DNA and regulate the expression of other genes that control cell division, differentiation, and cell death. (stanford.edu)
  • The following genes encode small Maf proteins MAFF (Human), Maff (Mouse), maft renamed maff (Zebrafish) MAFG (Human), Mafg (Mouse), mafg (Zebrafish) MAFK (Human), Mafk (Mouse), mafk (Zebrafish) sMaf proteins were identified as members of the Maf family transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • family of proteins
  • They are distinct structural units defining a large family of proteins that often exhibit a modular domain architecture three-dimensional structures of UBX domains reveal a close structural relationship with ubiquitin despite the lack of significant sequence homology UBX domain is very similar to ubiquitin which gives us some indication of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The α-crystallin family and βγ-crystallins compose the major family of proteins present in the crystalline lens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal of Virol
  • H5N1 genetic structure Influenza B and C Virus NEP (NS2) Proteins Possess Nuclear Export Activities Journal of Virology, August 2001, p. 7375-7383, Vol. 75, No. 16 O'Neill RE, Talon J, Palese P (1998). (wikipedia.org)
  • serine
  • The Kazal domain is an evolutionary conserved protein domain usually indicative of serine protease inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another study showed that oncogenic transformation by ras and fos also requires Jun N-terminal phosphorylation at Serine 63 and 73. (wikipedia.org)
  • motif
  • Rather it uses the fact that another viral protein, called NS1, contains a binding sequence for a PDZ domain , a common structural motif found in many different proteins. (virology.ws)
  • All known animal MYB DBDs consist of three tandem repeats of the MYB motif (designated R1, R2, and R3) and are referred to as 3R-MYB proteins ( Rosinski and Atchley, 1998 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Both proteins carry a C-terminus Myb motif and large TERF1-related dimerization domains near their N-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This domain contains a motif for binding the shelterin protein TIN2, which acts as a stabilizing protein, connecting units that are attached to double stranded and single stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • More proteins containing βγ-crystallin domains have now been characterized as calcium binding proteins with Greek key motif as a novel calcium-binding motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Adapter molecule crk is a member of an adapter protein family that binds to several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, it binds to α-dystrobrevin in the dystrophin-associated protein complex to act as a mechanical "linker" between the myofibrillar network and the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amino terminal segment of this domain binds to the active site of its target proteases, thus inhibiting their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • This encoded protein is a cis-trans prolyl isomerase that binds to the immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • There are 4 domain categories on the TERF2 protein that allow it to bind to both other proteins in the shelterin protein complex, and to specific types of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This TRFH domain also allows TERF2 to bind to and act as a dock for many other types of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two other domains also work to bind and influence the activity of proteins associated with the TERF2 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, an intrabody (from intracellular and antibody) is an antibody that works within the cell to bind to an intracellular protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because CNC and Bach proteins cannot bind to DNA by themselves, sMafs are indispensable partners of the CNC and Bach families of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these proteins cannot bind DNA by themselves, sMaf proteins are indispensable partner molecules of the CNC and Bach transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • The fact that RELA can be modified by a collection of kinases via phosphorylation at different sites/regions within the protein under different stimulations might suggest a synergistic effect of these modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo studies revealed that RELA is also under acetylation modification in the nucleus, which is just as important as phosphorylation as a post-translational modification of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, regulation of c-jun activity can be achieved through N-terminal phosphorylation by the Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is shown that Jun's activity (AP-1 activity) in stress-induced apoptosis and cellular proliferation is regulated by its N-terminal phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation through an ERK phosphorylation site in the C-terminal region. (wikipedia.org)
  • chickens
  • The infection of chickens with avian Hepatitis E virus avian HEV can be asymptomatic or induces clinical signs characterized by increased mortality and decreased egg production in adult birds. (duhnnae.com)
  • cellular
  • The cellular prion protein (PrP C ) has been widely investigated ever since its conformational isoform, the prion (or PrP Sc ), was identified as the etiological agent of prion disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • The conformational conversion of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrP C ) into a β-sheet enriched isoform denoted as prion (PrP Sc ) is central in neurodegenerative pathologies collectively know as prion diseases ( Prusiner, 2001 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Ashwell's work on hepatic binding proteins has served as a stimulus for the identification of a host of carbohydrate-specific receptors on various cell surfaces and has inaugurated the current concept of a cellular lectin. (asbmb.org)
  • Alpha-crystallin has chaperone-like properties including the ability to prevent the precipitation of denatured proteins and to increase cellular tolerance to stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first member of the Maf family is c-Maf, which was cloned as a cellular counterpart of the v-Maf oncogene isolated from avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • Due to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for avian HEV, the interaction between virus and host cells is still barely understood. (duhnnae.com)
  • Removal of the N-terminal inhibitor domain either by interaction with a second peptidase or by autocatalytic cleavage activates the zymogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inclusion of more N-terminal exons increases the negative charge that tunes the overall molecular conformation of fsTnT and alters interaction with TnI, TnC and tropomyosin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein interaction studies revealed that incorporation of exon 17 weakened binding of fsTnT to TnC and tropomyosin. (wikipedia.org)
  • residue
  • Together, Ashwell and Morell devised a labeling prodcedure that involved enzymatic removal of the glycoprotein's terminal sialic acid residue, thereby exposing galactose, which was then treated with galactose oxidase and tritiated borohydride, resulting in the incorporation of tritium into the protein. (asbmb.org)
  • A single water molecule possibly held in place by hydrogen bonding with the carboxylate group of the persistent Asp144 residue transfers protons from the GAR-N to the THF-N. The nucleophilic nitrogen on the terminal amino group of GAR attacks the carbonyl carbon of the formyl group on THF pushing negative charge onto the oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic region of each Maf family protein contains a tyrosine residue, which is critical for the unique DNA-binding modes of these proteins (see below for details). (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • However, heparinase II treatment of LMH cells had no effect on binding of the ORF2-3 construct, suggesting a possible distinct attachment mechanism of avian as compared to human HEV. (duhnnae.com)
  • Avian influenza virus infections in the human population are rare due to their inefficient direct human-to-human transmission. (mdpi.com)
  • In molecular biology, the UBX protein domain is found in ubiquitin-regulatory proteins, which are members of the ubiquitination pathway, as well as a number of other proteins including FAF-1 (FAS-associated factor 1), the human Rep-8 reproduction protein and several hypothetical proteins from yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent to the cloning of chicken synemin, Mizuno and colleagues reported the cloning of a novel IF protein, human desmuslin, as an α-dystrobrevin-interacting protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although several parts were very similar between human desmuslin and chicken synemin, the low degree of conservation between these two proteins compared to other cloned IF proteins suggested that synemin was not the human desmuslin orthologue. (wikipedia.org)
  • A notable difference between the various RNase H proteins is the presence or absence of the C-helix (present in E. coli, MLV and human RNases H, absent in HIV-1, B. halodurans and ASLV RNases H), a positively charged alpha helix also referred to as the basic loop or protrusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human gyrovirus 1 appears to be the same virus as avian gyrovirus 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Value of apoptin's 40-amino-acid C-terminal fragment for the differentiation between human tumor and non-tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretory
  • The persistent stromal expression of c-jun protein may prevent stromal cells from entering into apoptosis during the late secretory phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • capsid
  • In this study, four truncated avian HEV capsid proteins ORF2-1 - ORF2-4 with an identical 338aa deletion at the N-terminus and gradual deletions from 0, 42, 99 and 136aa at the C-terminus, respectively, were expressed and used to map the possible binding site within avian HEV capsid protein. (duhnnae.com)
  • Results from the binding assay showed that three truncated capsid proteins attached to avian LMH cells, but did not penetrate into cells. (duhnnae.com)
  • However, the shortest construct, ORF2-4, lost the capability of binding to cells suggesting that the presence of amino acids 471 to 507 of the capsid protein is crucial for the attachment. (duhnnae.com)
  • Gag-derived proteins govern the entire assembly and release of the virus particles, with matrix proteins playing key roles in Gag stability, capsid assembly, transport and budding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unique, single protein, trumpet-shaped capsomeres of Gyrovirus are arranged into 12 pentomers yielding a capsid 60 units in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenicity
  • There need to exist other sites located on the HA protein outside the cleavage site or on the other proteins expressed by AIV that contribute to the pathogenicity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We found potential markers of pathogenicity in all of the 11 proteins expressed by the H5 type of AIV. (beds.ac.uk)
  • structural
  • This protein has been found to form a linkage between desmin, which is a subunit of the IF network, and the extracellular matrix, and provides an important structural support in muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In anatomy, a crystallin is a water-soluble structural protein found in the lens and the cornea of the eye accounting for the transparency of the structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • in addition to its structural function, it also contains motifs for rolling circle replication in the C-terminal region. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription factors
  • The R2R3-MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • sMaf proteins form homodimers by themselves and heterodimers with two other bZIP families of transcription factors, namely CNC (cap 'n' collar) proteins [p45 NF-E2 (NFE2), Nrf1 (NFE2L1), Nrf2 (NFE2L2), and Nrf3 (NFE2L3) Not to be confused with Nuclear Respiratory factors] and Bach proteins (Bach1 and Bach2). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • Rapid influenza tests based on antibody detection of the NP protein (See Quidel, or Inverness web sites) have been available since 2000 Using lateral flow technology these tests usually give results in 20 minutes, not the several hours sugested above. (virology.ws)
  • This term can apply to several types of protein targeting: the antibody may remain in the cytoplasm, or it may have a nuclear localization signal, or it may undergo cotranslational translocation across the membrane into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, provided that it is retained in that compartment through a KDEL sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Also, TERF2 has a basic N-terminus, differing from TERF1's acidic N-terminus, and was found to be much more conserved, suggesting that the two proteins have distinct functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because MafF, MafG and MafK are well-conserved 18 kDa proteins that lack a transcriptional activation domain, they are classified into the small Maf subfamily, which is structurally and functionally distinct from the large Maf subfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • It is also a wonderful example of how unexpected research findings - in this case the discovery of a PDZ ligand in the viral NS1 protein - may lead to novel and effective clinical diagnostic reagents. (virology.ws)
  • Using sensitive sequence and structure comparison methods, we vastly extend the HEPN superfamily by identifying numerous novel families and by detecting diverged HEPN domains in several known protein families. (beds.ac.uk)
  • roles
  • In aging mice, PrP C changes in subcellular localization and post-translational modifications have been explored in an attempt to relate them to different protein roles and propensity to convert into PrP Sc . (frontiersin.org)
  • They are scaffolding proteins that play roles in signaling pathways involved in a variety of cell functions including membrane trafficking and cell polarity. (virology.ws)
  • different
  • The rabbit protein consisted of two different subunits that were 48,000 and 40,000 daltons. (asbmb.org)
  • The crystallins of different groups of organisms are related to a large number of different proteins, with those from birds and reptiles related to lactate dehydrogenase and argininosuccinate lyase, those of mammals to alcohol dehydrogenase and quinone reductase, and those of cephalopods to glutathione S-transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • assays
  • Binding assays with NS1 protein mutants established that the RNA-binding domain of the NS1 protein is required for binding to dsRNA as well as for binding to polyA and U6 snRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • The N-terminal region of RelA contains a Rel homology domain (RHD) followed by a nuclear localization signal. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The TRFH domain is responsible for other binding events, including RTEL1, and proteins that contain a TBD site. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic domain sits at the N-terminal, and has two main functions: the prevention of t-loop excision by XRCC3, and the inhibition of SLX4. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, because mutations in the TERF2 dimerization domain destabilize the protein, it has not been possible to test the contribution of TERF2 oligomerization on ATM repression directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NS1 protein can be divided into an N terminal (RNA binding) domain and C terminal (effector domain). (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of the UBX domain is not known although the fragment of avian FAF-1 containing the UBX domain causes apoptosis of transfected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal SH2 domain of this protein functions as a positive regulator of transformation whereas the C-terminal SH3 domain functions as a negative regulator of transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both isoforms have a very short N-terminal domain of 10 amino acids and a long C-terminal domain consisting of 1243 amino acids for the α isoform and 931 amino acids for the β isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cases they are synthesised as part of a larger precursor protein, either as a prepropeptide or as an N-terminal domain associated with an inactive peptidase or zymogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal domain of alpha-crystallin is not necessary for dimerisation or chaperone activity, but appears to be required for the formation of higher order aggregates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N- terminal domain consists of a Rossman type mononucleotide fold, with a four strand part of the beta sheet surrounded on each side by two alpha helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beta sheet continues into the C terminal domain, where on one side it is covered by a long alpha helix and on the other it is partially exposed to solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNase H domain occupies ~25% of the RT protein C-terminal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA polymerase domain occupies ~55% of the RT protein N-terminal. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The cyclic change of the c-jun protein levels is significant in the proliferation and apoptosis of glandular epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • VP3, also called apoptin, is a 13kd protein that has been shown to independently induce apoptosis in chicken cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single chicken anemia virus protein induces apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • They compared the avian and rabbit proteins and found that they had many properties in common, such as similar carbohydrate constituents and a requirement for calcium. (asbmb.org)
  • The Tx segment of chicken breast muscle fsTnT also a binding capacity for calcium, presumably serves as a calcium reservoir in avian fast pectoral muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with more N-terminal negative charges, this function may contribute to the higher calcium sensitivity of chicken breast muscle than that of leg muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • The data of our study suggest that the identified and characterized avian FAR isozymes, FAR1 and FAR2, can be involved in wax ester biosynthesis and in other pathways like ether lipid synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RelA
  • RELA, also known as p65, is a REL-associated protein involved in NF-κB heterodimer formation, nuclear translocation and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • RELA protein has four isoforms, the longest and the predominant one being 551 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)