• crystals
  • Other manufacturers make nearly linear-in-temperature quartz crystals that may be used to construct thermometers of similar performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, such kinds of quartz crystals tend to exhibit some challenges to obtain a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. (mdpi.com)
  • Quartz is the most abundant single mineral in the earth's crust (behind the feldspar group), and as such is present in a very large proportion of rocks both as primary crystals and as detrital grains in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The at-large proportion and structure of the original quartz crystals is preserved to the greatest extent, compared with the other profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • To the German petrologists granulite means a more or less banded fine-grained metamorphic rock, consisting mainly of quartz and feldspar in very small irregular crystals and usually also containing a fair number of minute, rounded, pale-red garnets. (wikipedia.org)
  • dealing with subjects such as, the translation of crystals by mechanical deformation, the regular adhesion of different types of minerals, the formation temperature of quartz and plagioclase twinning, the correlation of pleochroic haloes with radioactive radiation and the petrography of selected rock complexes in Westphalia, Hesse and the Harz. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another example is quartz crystals used in electronic devices such as radio transmitters and quartz watches to produce oscillations of very precise frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • silica
  • Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molten silica exhibits several peculiar physical characteristics that are similar to those observed in liquid water: negative temperature expansion, density maximum at temperatures ~5000 °C, and a heat capacity minimum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chalcedony ( /kælˈsɛdəni/) is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of quartz and moganite. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are both silica minerals, but they differ in that quartz has a trigonal crystal structure, while moganite is monoclinic. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • A. A. Makovetskii, Development of Technological Processes for Forming Special Types of Fibers and Capillaries from Quartz Glass for Opto-Electronics and Laser Medicine , Author's Abstract of Doctoral's Thesis [in Russian], St. Petersburg State technological Institute (Technical University), St. Petersburg (2016). (springer.com)
  • 2016. Temperature induced color change in gold nanoparticle arrays: Investigating the annealing effect on the localized surface plasmon resonance. (uib.no)
  • Physical Review
  • S. M. Shapiro, D. C. O'Shea, and H. Z. Cummins, "Raman scattering study of the α - β phase transition in quartz," Physical Review Letters , vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 361-364, 1967. (hindawi.com)
  • A. S. Pine and P. E. Tannenwald, "Temperature dependence of Raman linewidth and shift in α -quartz," Physical Review , vol. 178, no. 3, pp. 1424-1430, 1969. (hindawi.com)
  • J. D. Axe and G. Shirane, "Study of the α - β quartz phase transformation by inelastic neutron scattering," Physical Review B , vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 342-348, 1970. (hindawi.com)
  • U. T. Höchli and J. F. Scott, "Displacement parameter, soft-mode frequency, and fluctuations in quartz below its α - β phase transition," Physical Review Letters , vol. 26, pp. 1627-1629, 1971. (hindawi.com)
  • M. B. Smirnov and A. P. Mirgorodsky, "Lattice-dynamical study of the α - β phase transition of quartz: soft-mode behavior and elastic anomalies," Physical Review Letters , vol. 78, no. 12, pp. 2413-2416, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • room temperature
  • Their Tg values are well above room temperature, both at around 100 °C (212 °F). Rubber elastomers like polyisoprene and polyisobutylene are used above their Tg, that is, in the rubbery state, where they are soft and flexible. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependence
  • This is believed to be associated with the temperature dependence of the structure of the water in the layer at the wall. (springer.com)
  • M. Kurt and H. Yurtseven, "Temperature dependence of the Raman frequency shifts and the linewidths in the α phase of quartz," Balkan Physics Letters , vol. 19, Article ID 191042, pp. 362-368, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • M. C. Lider and H. Yurtseven, "Temperature dependence of the Raman frequency of an internal mode for SiO 2 -moganite close to the α - β transition," Journal of Thermodynamics , vol. 1, no. 1, Article ID 892696, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • heat
  • G. Dolino, J. P. Bachheimer, and C. M. E. Zeyen, "Observation of an intermediate phase near the α - β transition of quartz by heat capacity and neutron scattering measurements," Solid State Communications , vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 295-299, 1983. (hindawi.com)
  • H. Yurtseven and M. Desticioğlu, "Critical behaviour of the heat capacity near the α - β phase transition in quartz," High Temperature Materials and Processes , vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 189-194, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • H. Yurtseven and S. Ates, "Pippard relations and the analysis of the specific heat for the α - β transition in quartz," International Journal of Chemistry , no. 2, pp. 48-59, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • granite
  • High pressure experiments have shown that shock pressures of 85 GPa are needed to produce lechatelierite in quartz grains embedded in granite. (wikipedia.org)
  • grain
  • The lowest temperature texture (~250-400°C), bulging recrystallization (BLG) is characterized by bulges and small recrystallized grains along grain boundaries and, to some extent, microcracks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highest temperature of the three textures, grain boundary migration becomes the dominant mechanism at ~500-550°C. Exhibiting much larger recrystallized grain sizes than the other two regimes, in addition to lobate and highly interfingering boundaries, at these temperatures quartz is completely recrystallized. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 0-30% in bulging recrystallization, up to 90% in subgrain rotation recrystallization and 100% in grain boundary migration, this property may be observed in quartzite, at least well enough to get relative temperature relationships in the field. (wikipedia.org)
  • stable
  • In contrast, at considerably lower temperatures, the configuration of the glass remains sensibly stable over increasingly extended periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • transition
  • G. Dolino and J. P. Bachheimer, "Effect of the α - β transition on mechanical properties of quartz," Ferrolelectrics , vol. 43, pp. 77-86, 1982. (hindawi.com)
  • G. Dolino, "Angular and polarization properties of light scattering at the α - β phase transition of quartz," Physica Status Solidi (A) , vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 391-401, 1980. (hindawi.com)
  • M. G. Tucker, M. T. Dove, and D. A. Keen, "Simultaneous analysis of changes in long-range and short-range structural order at the displacive phase transition in quartz," Journal of Physics Condensed Matter , vol. 12, no. 48, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • M. C. Lider and H. Yurtseven, "Calculation of the raman linewidths of lattice modes close to the α - β transition in quartz," High Temperature Materials and Processes , vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 741-747, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • phase transition in quartz and AlPO 4 as studied by electron microscopy and diffraction," Physica Status Solidi (A) Applied Research , vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 723-735, 1976. (hindawi.com)
  • The glass-liquid transition or glass transition for short is the reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials) from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hard plastics like polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) are used well below their glass transition temperatures, that is in their glassy state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transition comprises a smooth increase in the viscosity of a material by as much as 17 orders of magnitude within a temperature range of 500 K without any pronounced change in material structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many materials that normally undergo a freezing transition, rapid cooling will avoid this phase transition and instead result in a glass transition at some lower temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below the transition temperature range, the glassy structure does not relax in accordance with the cooling rate used. (wikipedia.org)
  • extent
  • The extent to which these occur is a function of strain rate and temperature, those being, respectively, the factors controlling introduction of new dislocations and the ability of dislocations to migrate and form subgrain boundaries which themselves migrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the term prase is also used to describe green quartz, and to a certain extent is a color-descriptor, rather than a rigorously defined mineral variety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Time and temperature are interchangeable quantities (to some extent) when dealing with glasses, a fact often expressed in the time-temperature superposition principle. (wikipedia.org)
  • mineral
  • Aventurine is a form of quartz, characterised by its translucency and the presence of platy mineral inclusions that give a shimmering or glistening effect termed aventurescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although not a true mineral, it is often classified in the quartz mineral group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glass
  • The results of deferrization of glass quartz sands by flotation during thermal action on water wetting films are presented. (springer.com)
  • The high-temperature quartz glass envelope allows the filament to remain at a much higher temperature, for a light that's closer to natural daylight. (popularmechanics.com)
  • The higher temperature means a lot more light for the power consumed, but also makes the tungsten filament evaporate and redeposit on the glass, gradually reducing light output. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Similarly, by annealing (and thus allowing for slow structural relaxation) the glass structure in time approaches an equilibrium density corresponding to the supercooled liquid at this same temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The configuration of the glass in this temperature range changes slowly with time towards the equilibrium structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • In this study, Eu3 doped Y2O3 (Y2O3: Eu3+ ) phosphor target was deposited on quartz fibre substrates by electron beam evaporation technology, and then the deposited fibres were annealed at different temperatures from 600 to 10008C. (edu.hk)
  • As such, this information can be applied to determine relative temperatures of different rock much more reliably than it can determine absolute temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • In a nuclear thermal rocket a working fluid, usually liquid hydrogen, is heated to a high temperature in a nuclear reactor, and then expands through a rocket nozzle to create thrust. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lechatelierite may also form artificially, a unique example being the trinitite produced by melting of quartz sand at the first nuclear bomb explosion at Trinity Flats, White Sands, New Mexico. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calibration
  • The high linearity makes it possible to achieve high accuracy over an important temperature range that contains only one convenient temperature reference point for calibration, the triple point of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • Dynamic quartz recrystallization happens in a relatively predictable way with relation to temperature, and given its abundance quartz recrystallization can be used to easily determine relative temperature profiles, for example in orogenic belts or near intrusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in the unit cell of α-quartz, the central tetrahedron shares all four of its corner O atoms, the two face-centered tetrahedra share two of their corner O atoms, and the four edge-centered tetrahedra share just one of their O atoms with other SiO4 tetrahedra. (wikipedia.org)
  • texture
  • Recognizable in thin section by a more polygonized texture, the increased softening of the quartz allows for more thorough reduction of internal stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • change
  • citation needed] The transformation from α-quartz to beta-quartz takes place abruptly at 573 °C. Since the transformation is accompanied by a significant change in volume, it can easily induce fracturing of ceramics or rocks passing through this temperature limit. (wikipedia.org)
  • density
  • The density of stishovite is 4.287 g/cm3, which compares to α-quartz, the densest of the low-pressure forms, which has a density of 2.648 g/cm3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference in density can be ascribed to the increase in coordination as the six shortest Si-O bond lengths in stishovite (four Si-O bond lengths of 176 pm and two others of 181 pm) are greater than the Si-O bond length (161 pm) in α-quartz. (wikipedia.org)