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  • Receptors
  • Roberto Malinow of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, and colleagues demonstrate that AMPA receptors, previously thought to be present in a more or less static state in most of the synapses on glutamate-sensitive neurons, in fact move into and out of synapses as these synapses strengthen or weaken. (alzforum.org)
  • neurotransmitter
  • By using a carefully optimized form of iontophoresis, we are able to deliver specified profiles of neurotransmitter directly to single synapses. (amareway.org)
  • This method therefore allows the researcher to study the synapse one side at a time, by effectively replacing the presynaptic terminal with an artificial "terminal" capable of delivering arbitrary profiles of neurotransmitter. (amareway.org)
  • Information is conveyed from photoreceptor cells to bipolar cells via the release of the neurotransmitter glutamate at the ribbon synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also voltage gated L-type calcium channels on the docking sites of the ribbon synapse which trigger neurotransmitter release. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique allows for greater experimental control, through elimination of the effects of the rest of the brain on the circuit of interest, careful control of the physiological conditions through perfusion of substrates through the incubation fluid, to precise manipulation of neurotransmitter activity through perfusion of agonists and antagonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuron
  • It turns out that protein may be part of the answer to a long-standing mystery relating to how two different kids of synapses - one that activates the neuron and one that inhibits it - figure out how to send the right signals. (stanford.edu)
  • We then explored how the changes in the LP neuron waveform affect the properties of the "LP to PD" synapse. (jneurosci.org)
  • experiments
  • Instead we used 'giant synapses', originally found in the central auditory system, which are 20 times larger and that we successfully grew in Petri dishes for our real-time imaging experiments. (eurekalert.org)
  • cells
  • Well over a decade of research using fluorescence microscopy has revealed much about the architecture of the NK cell immune synapse - the structured interface between NK cells and target cells - and how it varies when inhibition or activation is the outcome of signal integration. (frontiersin.org)
  • The granule cells of the olfactory bulb communicate exclusively through dendrodendritic synapses because they lack axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • These granule cells form dendrodendritic synapses with mitral cells to convey odor information from the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial
  • Using an artificial synapse implemented in dynamic clamp, we show that when the LP to PD PSP occurred early in phase, it acted to speed up the pyloric rhythm, and larger PSPs also strengthened this trend. (jneurosci.org)
  • vesicle
  • And which kind of factors could regulate their motion and explain the wide range of vesicle mobility observed among synapses? (eurekalert.org)
  • This interpretation has recently been questioned at the inner hair cell ribbon synapse, where it has been instead proposed that exocytosis is described by uniquantal (i.e., univesicular) release shaped by a flickering vesicle fusion pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Three main techniques have been used to study SV pools in small, central synapses ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The slice preparation or brain slice is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of a synapse or neural circuit in isolation from the rest of the brain, in controlled physiological conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these techniques are elaborate and require expensive equipment because the fundamental nature of the lipid bilayer makes it a very difficult structure to study. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures
  • Here, we address this paradox by developing a method for counting the number of releasable SVs at small, central synapses in hippocampal cultures. (pnas.org)
  • distances
  • A wide range of movements takes place inside the synapse, with different speeds, distances and directionalities with a significant proportion of these cellular "public buses" actively carried towards specific destinations. (eurekalert.org)
  • Neurites could be directed toward each other over large distances and allowed to form synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • She did that and found that about 80-90 percent of the resulting spray-painted molecules were already linked by previous studies to the synapse. (stanford.edu)
  • Ting hasn't tested all of those mystery molecules, but she did look into about a third of them and all turned up in the synapse when she used other imaging methods. (stanford.edu)
  • These techniques initially relied upon the direct physical injection of various visualizable tracer molecules (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescence microscopy is a technique whereby certain molecules can be excited with one wavelength of light and will emit another longer wavelength of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • There is also a group of tracers that consist of protein products that can be taken up by the cell and transported across the synapse into the next cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • These methods can combine with calcium-sensitive fluorescence and immunostaining to provide a visual description of the synapses along a cultured cell or neural network. (amareway.org)
  • Another high resolution microscopy technique is fluorescence interference contrast microscopy (FLIC). (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • A slight holding potential can retain transmitter inside a quartz micropipette that can then be robotically positioned directly alongside a single synapse (located using dyes such as those described above). (amareway.org)
  • found
  • The actual signaling mechanism utilizes Na+ and Ca2+ pumps in a similar manner to those found in axodendritic synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendrodendritic synapses have also been found to have similar effects on olfactory input from the glomeruli of the antennal lobe of insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • It has been proposed that most ribbon synapses undergo a special type of exocytosis based on coordinated multivesicular release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors
  • Roberto Malinow of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, and colleagues demonstrate that AMPA receptors, previously thought to be present in a more or less static state in most of the synapses on glutamate-sensitive neurons, in fact move into and out of synapses as these synapses strengthen or weaken. (alzforum.org)
  • brain
  • Viral tracers can cross the synapse, and can be used to trace connectivity between brain regions across many synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simplest way to gain information about brain anatomy is by visual inspection, but many more sophisticated techniques have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cognitive neuroscience of music represents a significant branch of music psychology, and is distinguished from related fields such as cognitive musicology in its reliance on direct observations of the brain and use of such techniques as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroencephalography (EEG), and positron emission tomography (PET). (wikipedia.org)
  • microscopy
  • Electrophysiological recording and stimulation can take place either across the network or locally via an MEA, and the network development can be visually observed using microscopy techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the technique of annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM), which is typically used on material specimens, more effectively suppresses phase and diffraction contrast, providing image intensities that vary with the projected mass-thickness of samples up to micrometres thick for materials with low atomic number. (wikipedia.org)
  • nature
  • Fatt and Katz were the first to propose that neurotransmitter release at synapses was quantal in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs in the background of a cell when potentials are produced without the nerve stimulation of an action potential, and are due to the inherently random nature of synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • point
  • Commob Leaving-One-Out techniques, where the test data point is tradingg from the training set, are often utilized to expand the available data for supervised learning, the ideal classifier test set utilizes naïve data commin avoid any overtraining of the classi- fier. (binaryinternationalreviews.com)
  • In neuroscience, anterograde tracing is a research method which is used to trace axonal projections from their source (the cell body or soma) to their point of termination (the synapse). (wikipedia.org)
  • test
  • as contact up of large techniques is administered for the recurrence of the test of the respect and body of Open efficiency. (zoelifepub.com)
  • Moss with varying numbers of cyanobacteria was added to soil bacteria to test the inhibition of their growth using the thymidine incorporation technique. (jove.com)