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  • impulsivity
  • In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • comorbid
  • There is some evidence to support the clinical lore that children with "TS-only" (Tourette syndrome in the absence of other comorbid conditions) are unusually gifted: neuropsychological studies have identified advantages in children with TS-only. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common areas of study include psychosocial development, environmental factors which contribute to the development of a disorder, outcomes of children with medical conditions, treating the comorbid behavioral and emotional components of illness and injury, and promoting proper health behaviors, developmental disabilities, educating psychologists and other health professionals on the psychological aspects of pediatric conditions, and advocating for public policy that promotes children's health. (wikipedia.org)
  • autism
  • R01 MH081148) The goal of this multi-site clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a structured parent training compared to parent education in 3- to 6-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders. (yale.edu)
  • This study evaluates the neural mechanisms of CBT for anxiety by collecting fMRI with tasks of socioemotional functioning before and after treatment in 8 to 14-year-old children with high-functioning autism. (yale.edu)
  • inhibition
  • R03 MH09458301) This is an investigation of mesial-frontal EEG coherence during performance of a motor inhibition task as a biomarker of tic regulation in children with Tourette Syndrome. (yale.edu)
  • According to inhibition theory, it is natural for one to alternate between periods of attention and distraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some evidence to support deficits in response inhibition as one such marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attentional
  • page needed] Hence, there are two types of attention, distinguished in terms of the effort involved in their use and their changes in attentional shift: Involuntary attention refers to attention that requires no effort at all, as when something exciting or interesting happens. (wikipedia.org)
  • transient
  • Several authors have reported high rates of suicidal behaviour in acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Task switching paradigm manipulations allowed for measurement of transient task-set updating, sustained task-set maintenance, preparatory mechanisms and interference control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • schizophrenia
  • Family studies indicate that the closer a person's genetic relatedness to a person with schizophrenia, the greater the likelihood of developing the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Family-based treatment (FBT) is an efficacious treatment for adolescent eating disorders, yet it is not routinely implemented in clinical practice. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff. (patientsville.com)
  • brain
  • The purpose of this study is to learn more about the functioning of particular types of regions of the brain, specifically, those related to externalizing disorders such as Attention Defic. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Brain Imaging and Behavior. (monash.edu)
  • This type of attention employs the inhibitory mechanisms of the brain, which help block incoming stimuli that are unrelated to the task at hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several parts of the brain are involved in maintaining directed attention, primarily those located in the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the mechanism of directed attention employs the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the brain stem's basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any illness or injury to the brain that interrupts the brain circuits involved in maintaining attention and inhibiting external stimuli may also contribute to the development of directed attention fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • The onset of directed attention fatigue can be triggered by a number of activities, all of which involve use of the brain's inhibitory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • An older 2003 review of linkage studies also listed seven genes as likely to increase risk for a later diagnosis of the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psychology
  • According to the work of a recent task force commissioned by the Society of Pediatric Psychology, Division 54 of the American Psychological Association, 12 topic areas adapted from Roberts et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • fMRI
  • Some fMRI studies have shown that directed attention involves changes in the anterior cingulate cortex and the lateral prefrontal cortex, perhaps as a consequence of increased connectivity between these two areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • mental
  • Regarding exposure to PBDEs, lower mental development, psychomotor development and IQ were found at preschool age, and poorer attention at school age. (springer.com)
  • studies
  • Studies that require participants to carry out attention-demanding tasks under conditions of high distraction reveal how unpleasant a mentally fatigued person can be. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatigue that is experienced by participants of these kinds of studies is induced by attention-intensive tasks, and the observed effects of such fatigue are correlated with decline in inhibitory control. (wikipedia.org)
  • impulsivity
  • These clinical symptoms can be quantified using laboratory tasks of impulsivity in children. (springer.com)
  • Delay impulsivity, defined as the choice of a smaller immediate reward over larger delayed reward can be assessed with tasks of temporal discounting or delay-of-gratification (Scheres et al. (springer.com)
  • 1992 ). A third domain, which has received less attention, refers to impulsivity at the pre-decisional stage, when the individual gathers and evaluates information. (springer.com)
  • In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurobiological findings suggest that there are specific brain regions involved in impulsive behavior, although different brain networks may contribute to different manifestations of impulsivity, and that genetics may play a role. (wikipedia.org)
  • adults
  • Epidemiological surveys in the 1990s emphasized the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders in community samples of adults (1, 3, 4). (addforums.com)
  • Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. (jove.com)
  • comorbid
  • There is some evidence to support the clinical lore that children with "TS-only" (Tourette syndrome in the absence of other comorbid conditions) are unusually gifted: neuropsychological studies have identified advantages in children with TS-only. (wikipedia.org)
  • adolescents
  • Despite being the most commonly studied and diagnosed mental disorder in children and adolescents, the exact cause is unknown in the majority of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pediatric psychology is a multidisciplinary field of both scientific research and clinical practice which attempts to address the psychological aspects of illness, injury, and the promotion of health behaviors in children, adolescents, and families in a pediatric health setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least 10% of children and adolescents have functional impairment due to a diagnosed mental health and/or substance abuse disorder (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999), and up to 25% have clinically significant problems that may not (yet) rise to the level of a diagnosable psychiatric disorder (Briggs-Gowan et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • person's
  • Note: Only one Criterion A symptom is required if delusions are bizarre or hallucinations consist of a voice keeping up a running commentary on the person's behavior or thoughts, or two or more voices conversing with each other. (mental-health-matters.com)
  • onset
  • A study involving a subset of National Comorbidity Study subjects found that active psychiatric disorders predicted an increased risk for the first onset of daily smoking and progression to nicotine dependence (5). (addforums.com)
  • The first is known as the "childhood-onset type" and occurs when conduct disorder symptoms are present before the age of 10 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with adolescent-onset conduct disorder exhibit less impairment than those with the childhood-onset type and are not characterized by similar psychopathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The onset of directed attention fatigue can be triggered by a number of activities, all of which involve use of the brain's inhibitory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • In addition, with the increasing knowledge of processes underlying ASD, such as sensory information processes and synaptic plasticity, phenotyping efforts should include multi-level automated analysis of, for example, representative task-related behavioural and electrophysiological read-outs. (springer.com)
  • An inefficiency in the cognitive management systems of the brain that affects a variety of neuropsychological processes such as planning, organization, strategizing, paying attention to and remembering details, and managing time and space. (help4mychild.org)
  • Two domains of psychological functioning appear most susceptible to the effects of HIV infection on the central nervous system in children: expressive behavior and attentional processes (Brouwers, et al, 1994). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • distinguish
  • The condition can be difficult to tell apart from other disorders, as well as to distinguish from high levels of activity that are still within the normal-range. (wikipedia.org)
  • affective
  • The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders. (jove.com)
  • Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. (jove.com)
  • This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. (jove.com)
  • These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. (jove.com)
  • substance use disorders
  • The high rate of co-occurrence of substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders is well established. (addforums.com)
  • One of the overarching issues in the area of comorbidity is the nature of the connection between psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders. (addforums.com)
  • The rapid development of technical advances in the neurosciences has led to a better understanding of the molecular biology, neurotransmitter systems, and neural circuitry involved in mental illness and substance use disorders. (addforums.com)
  • Better understanding of the connection between substance use disorders and psychiatric disorders could have a profound effect on prevention and treatment. (addforums.com)
  • In this article, we conceptualize chronic distress as a central construct underlying the association of each of these four psychiatric disorders with substance use disorders and examine emerging neurobiological findings within this framework. (addforums.com)
  • Despite this caveat, even conservative estimates suggest a high rate of comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders. (addforums.com)
  • stimulus
  • They can also pay so much attention to one stimulus that they cannot absorb another stimulus that is more relevant at that particular time. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although one's efforts may involve very different tasks, each incoming stimulus calls upon the same directed attention mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • psychiatric
  • The establishment of robust and replicable behavioural testing paradigms with translational value for psychiatric diseases is a major step forward in developing and testing etiology-directed treatment for these complex disorders. (springer.com)
  • Do different psychiatric disorders have differing relationships with various substances of abuse? (addforums.com)
  • In the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study (3), an estimated 45% of individuals with alcohol use disorders and 72% of individuals with drug use disorders had at least one co-occurring psychiatric disorder. (addforums.com)
  • In the National Comorbidity Study (1), approximately 78% of alcohol-dependent men and 86% of alcohol-dependent women met the criteria for a lifetime diagnosis of another psychiatric disorder, including drug dependence. (addforums.com)
  • The risk relationship appears to be reciprocal, with psychiatric disorder predicting increased risk of later substance use and vice versa. (addforums.com)
  • Because acute intoxication and withdrawal from drugs of abuse can mimic symptoms of psychiatric disorders, the overlap of symptoms can be problematic in making an accurate diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder in an individual with a substance use disorder. (addforums.com)
  • diagnosis
  • Sufficient language skills must be developed before these higher-order pragmatic deficits can be detected, so a diagnosis of SCD should not be made until children are 4-5 years of age. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An older 2003 review of linkage studies also listed seven genes as likely to increase risk for a later diagnosis of the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • pediatric
  • According to the work of a recent task force commissioned by the Society of Pediatric Psychology, Division 54 of the American Psychological Association, 12 topic areas adapted from Roberts et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • impairment
  • The origins of SCD are in the speech and language literature, which documents pragmatic language impairment as a distinct pattern of deficits in social use of language. (biomedcentral.com)
  • children's
  • In particular, children's ability to regulate their thoughts, behaviors, and emotions will at least partially determine whether they succeed in school. (ufl.edu)
  • clinical
  • Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff. (patientsville.com)
  • This temporary condition is not a clinical illness or a personality disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Some fMRI studies have shown that directed attention involves changes in the anterior cingulate cortex and the lateral prefrontal cortex, perhaps as a consequence of increased connectivity between these two areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. (jove.com)
  • This type of attention employs the inhibitory mechanisms of the brain, which help block incoming stimuli that are unrelated to the task at hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several parts of the brain are involved in maintaining directed attention, primarily those located in the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the mechanism of directed attention employs the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the brain stem's basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any illness or injury to the brain that interrupts the brain circuits involved in maintaining attention and inhibiting external stimuli may also contribute to the development of directed attention fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevalence
  • Baird G, Simonoff E, Pickles A, Chandler S, Loucas T, Meldrum D, Charman T (2006) Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). (springer.com)
  • reveal
  • Studies that require participants to carry out attention-demanding tasks under conditions of high distraction reveal how unpleasant a mentally fatigued person can be. (wikipedia.org)