Loading...


  • soluble guanyly
  • 1 These effects of NO have been ascribed to the activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (GC), leading to the production of cGMP and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). (ahajournals.org)
  • Increased superoxide production by the endothelial and/or smooth muscle cells has important consequences with respect to signaling by the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGK-I), the activity and expression of which has been shown to be regulated in a redox-sensitive fashion. (ahajournals.org)
  • This review briefly addresses mechanisms underlying eNOS uncoupling and focuses on the consequences with respect to the activity and/or expression of the NO target, the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGK-I) present in vascular smooth muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • Receptor
  • Chimeric receptors created from distant members of the heptahelical receptors enable new strategies in understanding how these receptors transduce agonist binding into receptor activation and may be able to offer insights into the evolution of G-protein-coupled receptors from yeast to humans. (aspetjournals.org)
  • phase III trial by Human Genome Sciences, Rickville, IN, USA) that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator, and epratuzumab, a humanized antibody (Ab) that targets the CD22 receptor on B cells (phase IIb trial by UCB Pharma, Colombes, Belgium). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our work presents a unique and widely conserved DSF-family signal receptor that directly links the signal perception to c-di-GMP turnover in regulation of bacterial physiology. (pnas.org)
  • Many bacteria produce, detect, and respond to diffusible QS signal molecules in a cell-density-dependent manner ( 1 , 4 ), highlighting the critical roles of QS signal and its receptor in bacterial cell-cell communications. (pnas.org)
  • A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, there are four main transmembrane receptor types: G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs), serine/threonine kinase receptors (RSTKs), and ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs). (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelium-dependent
  • 4 Indeed, mice deficient in eNOS, sGC, and cGKI all demonstrate impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations in conduit arteries and the latter two knockout strains, reduced responsive to nitrovasodilators. (ahajournals.org)
  • ROS production has been demonstrated to occur in the endothelial cell layer, but also within the media and adventitia, all of which may impair nitric oxide (NO) signaling within vascular tissue to endothelium-dependent, but also endothelium-independent, vasodilators. (ahajournals.org)
  • phosphatase
  • The data provided by Sato et al 9 suggest a substantial in situ separation of powers in the kinase and phosphatase activities and indicate that physiological homeostatic mechanisms are likely to use tight but separate control of both kinase and phosphatase activities through feedback control mechanisms that are poorly understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • transmembrane
  • Making use of various combinations of three basic domains of the receptors (i.e., exofacial, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic segments) that couple agonist binding into activation of effectors through heterotrimeric G-proteins, molecular pharmacology has probed the basic organization, structure/function relationships of this superfamily of heptahelical receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • TCS genes are typically located within the same operon encoding two signalling proteins: a transmembrane sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR), which may sometimes be carried by a single polypeptide to form the hybrid HKs [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • molecules
  • The present report will not concentrate on these therapeutic Abs that have been described in recent comprehensive reviews (for example [ 1 , 2 ]), but will rather focus on fusion proteins, peptides and small molecules that represent excellent alternative tools for immune intervention in lupus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • proliferation
  • When it was found that the antibiotic rapamycin was a potent inhibitor of the proliferation of virtually every eukaryotic cell type examined (e.g., fungi, T cells, and tumor cells) [ 1 , 2 , 3 ], it became clear that the molecular target of rapamycin must be highly conserved and its function critical for cell survival. (mdpi.com)
  • For example, in several cell culture-based models of VSMC proliferation and apoptosis, NO has been shown to act as antiproliferative and proapoptotic agent, and in both circumstances work via a cGKI-dependent or -independent manner. (ahajournals.org)
  • pathway
  • Methods and Results- We show that in VSMC, E2 inhibits the RhoA-Rock pathway in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5 A significant pathway for modulation of MLCP activity is by a signaling cascade involving the small G protein Rho and its activation of Rho-kinase, which phosphorylates MBS. (ahajournals.org)
  • The study by Sato et al 9 raises important questions of how the RhoA-Rho-kinase pathway is activated after the insult of hemorrhage, how MLCP activity is regulated in general, and whether these mechanisms are altered in various pathological states. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the role of the NO-dependent signaling pathway in delayed cardioprotection by sildenafil. (ahajournals.org)
  • genes
  • The genomes of Psy B728a, Pto DC3000 and Pph 1448A were found to contain a large number of genes encoding TCS proteins, and a core of complete TCS proteins were shared between these genomes: 30 putative TCS clusters, 11 orphan HKs, 33 orphan RRs, and 16 hybrid HKs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A close analysis of the distribution of genes encoding TCS proteins revealed important differences in TCS proteins among the three P. syringae pathovars. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This response is slower than the first because it involves more steps, like transcription of genes and then the effect of newly formed proteins in a specific target. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Are the Mechanisms for NO-Dependent Vascular Remodeling Different From Vasorelaxation In Vivo? (ahajournals.org)
  • Along with conserving many of the protein targets in the stress response, many of the critical regulatory mechanisms are maintained, and often differ only in their level of expression. (ijbs.com)
  • Hence, the C. elegans model outlines a framework of critical molecular mechanisms that may be employed in the future as therapeutic targets for addressing disease states. (ijbs.com)
  • Similar to AHL-type QS systems, the diffusible signal factor (DSF)-dependent QS systems have been recognized as another family of widely conserved QS mechanisms ( 3 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • regulatory
  • 2 Several regulatory proteins thus cooperate to provide a tight control of RhoA activity including RhoA exchange factors and RhoA GTPase activating proteins that control the GDP/GTP cycle, and Rho guanine dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI) that sequesters RhoA in the cytosol. (ahajournals.org)
  • bind
  • Hydrophobic/membrane-associated - are insoluble in water and membrane-associated, being localized at intermembrane spaces, where they can bind to membrane-associated effector proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • contraction
  • Whereas a high concentration of the NO donor S -nitroso- N -acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, 100 μmol/L) significantly attenuated contraction amplitude by 24.4±4.5% (without changing the Ca 2+ transient or total cAMP), a low concentration of SNAP (1 μmol/L) significantly increased contraction amplitude (38±10%), Ca 2+ transient (26±10%), and cAMP levels (from 6.2 to 8.5 pmol/mg of protein). (ahajournals.org)
  • genome
  • The figure depicts only the CMGC branch of a larger tree constructed (by J. Packer, Abbott Laboratories) from a Hidden Markov Model-derived alignment of all protein kinases in the P. falciparum genome. (asmscience.org)
  • messengers
  • They have been identified as secondary messengers in both hormone and ion-channel signalling in eukaryotic cells, as well as allosteric effector compounds of DNA binding proteins in prokaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • Type 2 pneumocytes are also important because they secrete pulmonary surfactant(PS), which consists 80-90% of phospholipids [(phosophatidylcholine(PC), phosphatidyglycerol(PG), phosphaditylinositol (PI)] and 5-10% of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, AND SP-D). PS is synthesized as lamellar bodies, which are structures consisting of closely packed bilayers that are secreted and then undergo transformation into a morphological form called tubular myelin. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Indeed, ever since the authentic target of rapamycin (TOR) was first discovered using an elegant genetic approach in budding yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) [ 4 , 5 ], TOR has emerged as a universal, centrally important sensor, integrator, and controller of eukaryotic cell growth [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • induces
  • We recently demonstrated that it induces potent protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury in rabbit hearts through the opening of mitochondrial ATP-dependent K + channels. (ahajournals.org)
  • eNOS
  • In addition, a significant increase in both iNOS and eNOS protein was detected 24 hours after sildenafil treatment. (ahajournals.org)
  • mediator
  • Conclusion- Our work thus defines AMPKα1 as (1) a new kinase for RhoA and (2) a new mediator of the vasoprotective effects of estrogen. (ahajournals.org)
  • Approaches
  • For all these reasons, and particularly in the past 6 to 7 years, intense and collective research has led to the development of more targeted approaches that are currently under evaluation for treating patients with lupus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Organization
  • TCS proteins have a modular organization, which may give rise to highly complex structures, but the core structures and activities are maintained [ 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In contrast, CheA-like HKs that function in chemotaxis lack the sensor domain and differ from other HKs in their domain constitution and organization, where the H box of the transmitter domain resides at the N-terminal end of the protein [ 5 - 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • homeostasis
  • This project focuses on defining the role of GCC as a switch for lineage-dependent tumorigenesis whose deregulation reprograms survival circuits essential for regenerative homeostasis and universally required for neoplastic transformation. (jefferson.edu)
  • vascular
  • Figure 1 summarizes our observations that in all these pathophysiological settings vascular oxidative stress, as visualized by dihydroethidine-dependent fluorescence, is present within the endothelium, but also the smooth muscle cell layer and the adventitia, all of which plays an important role for the development of endothelial and/or vascular dysfunction. (ahajournals.org)
  • accumulation
  • In that context, differentiated enterocytes in villi exhibit higher guanylin expression and ligand-dependent cGMP accumulation compared to proliferating progenitor cells in crypts. (jefferson.edu)
  • intracellular
  • 6 Mechanistically, PDE4 inhibition resulted in elevation of intracellular cyclic-AMP levels and suppression of PI3K and AKT activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Using pharmacological activators and inhibitors, we have concluded that gliding motility is initiated when albumin interacts with the surface of the sporozoite and that this leads to a signal transduction cascade within the sporozoite, including the elevation of intracellular cAMP, the modulation of sporozoite motility by Ca 2+ and the release of microneme proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • receptor
  • In one rate, Partnering the Various failing member continuation-in-part in this pregnancy sets for diagnostic Bloating skin for Thromboxanes, targeted as smooth receptor chemistry( CHF) patients, who may work well but herein exogenous failure ia and are myocardial activity heart( CRT) at median cardiac aggregation individuals. (sonicboomsound.com)
  • The activated receptor must first interact with other proteins inside the cell before the ultimate physiological effect of the ligand on the cell's behavior is produced. (50webs.com)
  • Often, the behavior of a chain of several interacting cell proteins is altered following receptor activation. (50webs.com)
  • A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • This motility is associated with the secretion of at least two proteins, circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Studies with apicomplexans have used several different approaches to provide evidence of microneme secretion, including quantification of microneme proteins secreted into the medium, immunofluorescence studies to detect microneme proteins expressed on the parasite surface, fine structural analysis of microneme contents and their appearance on the parasite surface after microneme discharge, and gliding motility. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • signals
  • Within the brain, cyclic nucleotides transduce neuromodulatory signals into functional outputs for individual neurons leading to changes in neural networks themselves or their function. (frontiersin.org)
  • We describe the successful clinical repurposing of PDE4 inhibitors in B-cell malignancies, and propose that given their anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory activity, these agents will suppress BCR signals without the toxicity associated with other targeted biological doublets. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 6 These data linked the cyclic-AMP/PDE4 axis to the essential tonic BCR signals, highlighting the potential impact of PDE4 modulation in malignant B cells ( Figure 1 ). (bloodjournal.org)
  • sequence
  • Washington DC, USA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Description: Human chromosome 4: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM Name: humchr04.txt Release: 2018_11 of 05-Dec-2018 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- This documents lists all the human protein sequence entries whose genes are known to be encoded on chromosome 4 in this release of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. (uniprot.org)
  • Currently, CYP proteins from all sources with approximately 40% sequence identity or greater are included in the same family which is designated by an Arabic number. (ahajournals.org)
  • cell
  • It is composed of three independent polypeptide chains, 2 of which have an enzymatic activity-edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF)-and one, the protective antigen (PA), which has the ability to interact with the target cell. (prolekare.cz)
  • pdf Cancer Facts: A use is a pulmonary Summary of infection in the whorled because books Source protein and cell when developing likely diabetic schizophrenics of dual A-EVENT. (sonicboomsound.com)
  • Part of the Notch protein is released from the cell surface membrane and can act to change the pattern of gene transcription in the cell nucleus. (50webs.com)
  • This causes the responding cell to make different proteins, resulting in an altered pattern of cell behavior. (50webs.com)
  • Pools of overlapping peptides from antigenic proteins for T-cell stimulation, T-cell expansion in T-cell assays such as ELISPOT, ICS or Flow Cytometry, e.g. for immune monitoring. (jpt.com)
  • The cytoskeletal protein actin is well conserved within apicomplexans but divergent from mammalian actins, and was primarily reported to function during host cell invasion. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Here, we review a decade-long exploration of the contribution of cyclic-AMP and PDE4 to the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoma, 5 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 9 culminating with the first-in-cancer clinical trial of a PDE4 inhibitor in advanced B-cell malignancies. (bloodjournal.org)
  • functional
  • In fact, genetic mutations in either of these two proteins, or alterations in the environment that promotes their functional coupling, are known to cause ventricular arrhythmias, hypercontractures and/or pathological remodeling of cellular structures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like other nucleotides, cyclic nucleotides are composed of three functional groups: a sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a single phosphate group. (wikipedia.org)
  • significance
  • US Patent Application Number: 20030176499 Guide stored: May 8, 2003 opinion: The Loss of peptides, also fluxes, relates intended for the infarction of a act Additional in the Failure of atomic body kinase, and not the patients of hypertrophy significance unpaired to supplemental nuclei. (sonicboomsound.com)
  • Their biological significance includes a broad range of protein-ligand interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • The anthrax toxin is a tripartite toxin, where the two enzymatic subunits require the third subunit, the protective antigen (PA), to interact with cells and be escorted to their cytoplasmic targets. (prolekare.cz)
  • cAMP
  • 42 , 43 Cyclic-AMP (cAMP) downmodulates this positive signaling wave by suppressing SYK and PI3Kδ activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • different
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • second
  • While all nucleotides have this structure, the phosphate group makes a second connection to the ribose ring at the 3' carbon in cyclic nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Studies using PDE5 inhibitors in mice homozygous for the clinically relevant F508del mutation have been conducted with the aim of restoring F508del-CFTR protein function. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a consequence, expression of the misfolded, immature, partly glycosylated F508del-CFTR protein at apical membranes is reduced, leading to a loss-of-function of transepithelial chloride transport. (frontiersin.org)
  • expression
  • In the case of the F508del-CFTR mutation, efforts have been made to correct localization of the mutant protein by favoring its expression at the apical membrane of cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • activity
  • 5. The method according to claim 3 wherein translocation and/or activity of said NF-.kappa.B/Rel protein is inhibited. (patents.com)
  • amino
  • The most common disease allele, F508del, corresponding to a deletion of a single phenylalanine residue at position 508 of a single polypeptide chain of 1480 amino acids, prevents the efficient folding of the CFTR protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aitken A, Rouviere-Yaniv J (1979) Amino and carboxy terminal sequences of the DNA-binding protein HU from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6701 (ATCC 27170). (springer.com)
  • cells
  • For pdf Cancer Facts:, in a increase of cells the Dysphoric amplitude cannot view biophysiological However to shown obesity( the Appendix of the thymus which is CHF) and, acutely if the fatty state gives formed, the affecting cholinesterases can come targeted covering them Fiscal. (sonicboomsound.com)
  • Those chemicals affect the behavior of distant target cells. (50webs.com)
  • When these offensive agents infiltrate the superficial barriers, the body's immune system responds in an orchestrated defense involving a litany of specialized cells which target the threat, neutralize it, and clean up the remnants of the battle. (wikipedia.org)
  • another
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • forms
  • It forms an underlying aqueous protein-containing hypophase and an overlying phospholipid film composed primarily of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the phosphate group has two separate bonds to the ribose sugar, it forms a cyclic ring. (wikipedia.org)