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  • kinase
  • The t(2;5)(p23;35) fuses the anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK ) gene on chromosome 2 with the nucleophosmin ( NPM ) gene on chromosome 5, resulting in a fusion gene that encodes for an 80-kDa NPM-ALK chimeric protein with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. (bloodjournal.org)
  • numerous tyrosine kinase cell signaling proteins are responsible for the growth and proliferation of eosinophils {see clonal eosinophilia}), methotrexate and Hydroxycarbamide (both are chemotherapy and immunosuppressant drugs), and Alemtuzumab (a antibody that binds to the CD52 antigen on mature lymphocytes thereby marking them for destruction by the body). (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Also required in the diagnosis is immunophenotypic evidence that cells are T lymphocytes, such as the expression of immunologic markers CD3 or CD4, but CD30 expression must be present in all neoplastic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the effect on immune cells (especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the immune system against self (so-called autoimmunity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • The main classes are malignant neoplasms (that is, cancers) of the lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that belongs to both the lymph and the blood and pervades both. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophila, also termed lymphocyte variant eosinophilia, is a rare disorder in which eosinophilia or hypereosinophilia (i.e. a large or extremely large increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood circulation) is caused by aberrant population of lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These aberrant lymphocytes function abnormally by stimulating the proliferation and maturation of bone marrow eosinophil-precursor cells termed colony forming unit-Eosinophils or CFU-Eos. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • The symptom of episodic angioedema in lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia resembles that occurring in Gleich's syndrome, a rare disease that is accompanied by secondary hypereosinophilia plus a sub-population of CD3(-), CD4(+) T cells and therefore proposed, at least in many patients, a subtype of lymphocyte-variant hypereosiophilia. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • The peptide-based linker bonds the antibody to the cytotoxic compound in a stable manner so the drug is not easily released from the antibody under physiologic conditions to help prevent toxicity to healthy cells and ensure dosage efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • The term chemotherapy has come to connote non-specific usage of intracellular poisons to inhibit mitosis, or cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, the use of drugs (whether chemotherapy, hormonal therapy or targeted therapy) constitutes systemic therapy for cancer in that they are introduced into the blood stream and are therefore in principle able to address cancer at any anatomic location in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • To a large extent, chemotherapy can be thought of as a way to damage or stress cells, which may then lead to cell death if apoptosis is initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the side effects of chemotherapy can be traced to damage to normal cells that divide rapidly and are thus sensitive to anti-mitotic drugs: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract and hair follicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in the most common side-effects of chemotherapy: myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells, hence also immunosuppression), mucositis (inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract), and alopecia (hair loss). (wikipedia.org)
  • These micrometastases can be treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and can reduce relapse rates caused by these disseminated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • It is expressed in embryonal carcinoma but not in seminoma and is thus a useful marker in distinguishing between these germ cell tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • if the symptoms are persistent, an evaluation to determine their cause, including possible lymphoma, should be undertaken. (wikipedia.org)
  • They consist of: Fever Night sweats Weight loss Other symptoms: Loss of appetite or anorexia Fatigue Respiratory distress or dyspnea Itching Lymphoma is definitively diagnosed by a lymph node biopsy, meaning a partial or total excision of a lymph node examined under the microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • In many clinical settings, however, studies on the T cell receptor and IL-5 are not available and therefore not routine parts of the diagnostic work-up or criteria for the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Systemic therapy is often used in conjunction with other modalities that constitute local therapy (i.e. treatments whose efficacy is confined to the anatomic area where they are applied) for cancer such as radiation therapy, surgery or hyperthermia therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditional chemotherapeutic agents are cytotoxic by means of interfering with cell division (mitosis) but cancer cells vary widely in their susceptibility to these agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • The diagnosis of ALCL requires the examination by a pathologist of any enlarged lymph node, or any affected extranodal tissue where there the tumor is found, such as the intestine, the liver or bone in the case of systemic ALCL. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • True positivity requires localisation of signal to the cell membrane and/or paranuclear region (cytoplasmic positivity is considered non-specific and non-informative). (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug
  • The peptide antibody-drug bond facilitates rapid and efficient drug cleavage inside target tumor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphologic
  • 2 Notably, ALK + ALCL is characterized by a spectrum of cytologic features that allow the recognition of morphologic variants (common, lymphohistiocytic, small cell, and mixed). (bloodjournal.org)
  • types
  • Two types of ALCL present as systemic disease and are considered as aggressive lymphomas, while two types present as localized disease and may progress locally. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) includes two other categories as types of lymphoma: multiple myeloma and immunoproliferative diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • mature
  • The overly stimulated CFU-Eos cells mature to apparently normal eosinophils, enter the circulation, and may accumulate in, and severely damage, various tissues. (wikipedia.org)