• epithelial cells
  • Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) Hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC) are specialized airway epithelial cells that occur as solitary cells or as clusters called neuroepithelial bodies (NEB) in the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucosa of organs are composed of one or more layers of epithelial cells that secrete mucus, and an underlying lamina propria of loose connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • mucus
  • Most people are familiar with nasal mucosa and how it helps keep out infections but few people know that we also require nasal mucus for our sense of smell. (wisegeek.com)
  • Heat and exchange moisturizers (HME) are devices used in mechanically ventilated patients intended to help prevent complications due to "drying of the respiratory mucosa, such as mucus plugging and endotracheal tube (ETT) occlusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to acting as a filter, mucus produced within the nose supplements the body's effort to maintain temperature, as well as contributes moisture to integral components of the respiratory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the human respiratory system, mucus, also known as airway surface liquid (ASL), aids in the protection of the lungs by trapping foreign particles that enter them, in particular, through the nose, during normal breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small particles such as dust, particulate pollutants, and allergens, as well as infectious agents and bacteria are caught in the viscous nasal or airway mucus and prevented from entering the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • This event along with the continual movement of the respiratory mucus layer toward the oropharynx, helps prevent foreign objects from entering the lungs during breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypersecretion of mucus can occur in inflammatory respiratory diseases such as respiratory allergies, asthma, and chronic bronchitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The green color of mucus comes from the heme group in the iron-containing enzyme myeloperoxidase secreted by white blood cells as a cytotoxic defense during a respiratory burst. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acini empty into little tubes (tubules) that lead to a reservoir (collecting duct) that has a portal through the skin (mucosa) that can open and close allowing the mucus into the main tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • airways
  • A system such as this creates dead space, a volume of air (about 150 ml in the adult human) that fills the airways after exhalation and is breathed back into the alveoli before environmental air reaches them. (wikipedia.org)
  • nose
  • In humans, the nose is located centrally on the face and serves as an alternative respiratory passage especially during suckling for infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute
  • In patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome conventional humidifiers are preferred to HMEs for improved elimination of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the type and amount of irritant gas inhaled, victims can experience symptoms ranging from minor respiratory discomfort to acute airway and lung injury and even death. (wikipedia.org)
  • distress
  • This helps to prevent the horse from inhaling food, but does not allow use of the mouth to breathe when in respiratory distress, a horse can only breathe through its nostrils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to high concentrations can cause bronchiolar and alveolar edema and airway destruction resulting in respiratory distress or failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretes
  • It has pneumococcal surface proteins that inhibit complement-mediated opsonization, and it secretes IgA1 protease that will destroy secretory IgA produced by the body and mediates its attachment to respiratory mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system secretes two peptide hormones directly into the blood, vasopressin and oxytocin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lungs
  • In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Has been used for thousands of years by Native Americans then later by Thomsonian and Eclectic physicians as a strong antispasmodic to the lungs, heart and musculoskeletal system. (smileherb.biz)
  • immune system
  • The clinical signs of DVE "vary with virulence of virus strain, species, sex, and immune system status" of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only does the conjunctiva produce IgA, like the lacrimal glands, but it also contains macrophages, neutrophilic granulocytes, mast cells, lymphocytes, and other aspects of the general mucosal immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. pneumoniae has several virulence factors, including the polysaccharide capsule mentioned earlier, that help it evade a host's immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with a compromised immune system, such as those living with HIV, are also at higher risk of pneumococcal disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • often it is sufficient to allow the immune system to fight off the virus over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with providing a physical barrier, they also contain key parts of the immune system and serve as the interface between the body proper and the microbiome. (wikipedia.org)
  • How the Immune System Works (4th ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • skin
  • Other animals, such as insects, have respiratory systems with very simple anatomical features, and in amphibians even the skin plays a vital role in gas exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mullein leaves make a tea that's gently soothing to both the skin and mucosa, including the respiratory system. (smileherb.biz)
  • in an adult human the total surface area of the mucosa is about 400 square meters while the surface area of the skin is about 2 square meters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The skin of the face, normally around the mouth, and the mucosa of the mouth and/or throat, as well as the tongue, swell over the period of minutes to hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • We are learning about this in health class and apparently, nasal mucosa also regulates the temperature and humidity of the air we breathe. (wisegeek.com)