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  • circuitry
  • In addition, there is unanimous consensus between the authors that future experimental and computational work is needed to understand the function of cerebellar-basal ganglia circuitry in both motor and non-motor functions. (cnr.it)
  • Most of the patients with blocq's syndrome suffer from hypokinetic gait disorder defined as slowness of movement due to the dysfunction of the circuitry controlled by the basal ganglia, frontal lobe and brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parkinson's
  • Also, several major degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, are specific to humans, although "models" of them have been proposed for other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • alpha-synuclein: can aggregate to form insoluble fibrils in pathological conditions characterized by Lewy bodies, such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • anatomy
  • This is an integrated textbook on the nervous system, covering the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the system, all presented in a clinically relevant context appropriate for the first two years of the medical student course.One of the seven volumes in the Systems of the Body series. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Concise text covers the core anatomy, physiology and biochemistry in an integrated manner as required by system- and problem-based medical courses. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • He learned about comparative anatomy and the nervous system from biologist George Howard Parker, studied psychology under William James, took a class in logic taught by Josiah Royce and graduated with a degree in philosophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • synaptic
  • Research over the last decade has shown that endocannabinoid/CB1 receptor signaling exerts powerful inhibitory effects on both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission in the basal ganglia and many other brain regions. (frontiersin.org)
  • cerebral
  • Ataxic cerebral palsy is caused by damage to cerebellar structures, differentiating it from the other two forms of cerebral palsy, which are spastic cerebral palsy (damage to cortical motor areas and underlying white matter) and athetoid cerebral palsy (damage to basal ganglia). (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • PVLV provides reinforcement learning signals to train up the dynamic gating system in the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The motor cortices send signals through the basal ganglia to refine the choice of muscles that will participate in the movement and to amplify the activity in the motor cortices that will drive the muscle contractions. (wikipedia.org)
  • initiation
  • Balance between various interacting neuronal systems such as locomotion which includes initiation and maintenance of rhythmic stepping, balance, and ability to adapt to the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurological
  • The existence of such a system as an isolated entity responsible for the neurological regulation of emotion has gone into disuse and currently it is considered as one of the many parts of the brain that regulate visceral, autonomic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Similar analyses have been performed on postmortem human basal ganglia tissue, and experiments are planned to extend these studies to postmortem tissue derived from patients with diagnosed Parkinsonism. (uci.edu)
  • several
  • Each stripe can be independently updated, such that this system can remember several different things at the same time, each with a different "updating policy" of when memories are updated and maintained. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Thus, BG/PVLV form an actor-critic architecture where the PVLV system learns when to update. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this finding indicated that memory was not made up of a single system positioned in one place in the brain, at the time, others agreed that motor skills are likely a special case that represented a less cognitive form of memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Computational neuroscience focuses on the description of biologically plausible neurons (and neural systems ) and their physiology and dynamics, and it is therefore not concerned with biologically unrealistic disciplines such as connectionism , machine learning , artificial neural networks , artificial intelligence and computational learning theory . (wikipedia.org)
  • The roots terminate in dorsal root ganglia, which are composed of the cell bodies of the corresponding neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histamine H3 receptors are expressed in the central nervous system and to a lesser extent the peripheral nervous system, where they act as autoreceptors in presynaptic histaminergic neurons, and also control histamine turnover by feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like most other neurological processes, the effects of cannabis on the brain follow the standard protocol of signal transduction, the electrochemical system of sending signals through neurons for a biological response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons within the DG are famous for being one of two nervous system areas capable of neurogenesis, the growth or development of nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these features help increase the wasp's nocturnal vision, other factors not widely studied also contribute, such as the lateral branching of neurons in the first optic ganglion within the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Research in rats has indicated that THC prevented hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage as well as or better than other antioxidants in a chemical (Fenton reaction) system and neuronal cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • The term 'computational neuroscience' was introduced by Eric L. Schwartz , who organized a conference, held in 1985 in Carmel, California , at the request of the Systems Development Foundation to provide a summary of the current status of a field which until that point was referred to by a variety of names, such as neural modeling, brain theory and neural networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deficits in MCI are consistent with the neurological changes seen in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobes, cholinergic system, and the decreased connectivity in the frontoparietal network in the early stages of AD. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • The first graduate educational program in computational neuroscience was organized as the Computational and Neural Systems Ph.D. program at the California Institute of Technology in 1985. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The mathematical models formulated in computational neuroscience are useful since they capture the essential features of the biological system at multiple spatial-temporal scales, from membrane currents, proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations , columnar and topographic architecture, and learning and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Although numerous studies have shown that the two systems are independent and structured separately from another, there is also evidence that both are essential for successful perception, especially as the stimuli takes on more complex forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • content relates to basal levels of mitochondrial content, and whether such relationships are preserved between humans and classically used rodent models are all questions that have been either poorly addressed or never investigated. (jove.com)
  • cell
  • In neuroblasts, both complexes are localized to the apical cortex, causing apical/basal cell division and daughter cells exhibiting strong size asymmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • whole
  • The elongation of the whole genital system is greater than in Helicoid snails generally, and doubtless correlated with the unusual length of the last whorl. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Several phytochemicals were shown to interfere with redox biology in the human system. (blogspot.com)
  • and its relationship to basal mitochondrial content in mouse, rat and human muscles using in situ immunolabeling and histochemical methods on muscle serial cross-sections. (jove.com)
  • different
  • We implemented a semi-automated measuring system in which different well-known software components for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis are integrated to obtain reliable measurements of DWI and PWI disturbances in MS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CB2 receptors are structurally different (the sequence similarity between the two subtypes of receptors is 44%), found only on cells of the immune system, and seems to function similarly to its CB1 counterpart. (wikipedia.org)
  • functions
  • Certain systems can tolerate such glitches but if this output functions as a clock signal for further systems that contain memory, for example, the system can rapidly depart from its designed behaviour (in effect, the temporary glitch becomes a permanent glitch). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Suppose a system receives as input a time sequence of vectors \((x_t, y_t)\ ,\) \(t=0, 1, 2, \dots\ ,\) where each \(x_t\) is an arbitrary signal and \(y_t\) is a real number. (scholarpedia.org)
  • shown
  • It has been shown that this rating system has widespread acceptance for use in clinical trials, and has been shown to have "good interobserver reliability. (wikipedia.org)