• Parkinson's
  • Also, several major degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, are specific to humans, although "models" of them have been proposed for other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • alpha-synuclein: can aggregate to form insoluble fibrils in pathological conditions characterized by Lewy bodies, such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortical
  • 2013 ). While, on the other hand, exploiting a detailed computational model of the basal ganglia such as (Rubin and Terman 2004 ), some other works try to reduce the impact of the pallidal output on the thalamo-cortical relay function (see, for example, Feng et al. (springer.com)
  • Ataxic cerebral palsy is caused by damage to cerebellar structures, differentiating it from the other two forms of cerebral palsy, which are spastic cerebral palsy (damage to cortical motor areas and underlying white matter) and athetoid cerebral palsy (damage to basal ganglia). (wikipedia.org)
  • pallidal
  • On this system, a proportional regulation of the firing rate reduces the gain of the subthalamo-pallidal loop in the parkinsonian case, thus impeding pathological oscillation generation. (springer.com)
  • anatomy
  • He learned about comparative anatomy and the nervous system from biologist George Howard Parker, studied psychology under William James, took a class in logic taught by Josiah Royce and graduated with a degree in philosophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The basal ganglia form a major brain system in all species of vertebrates, but in primates (including humans) there are special features that justify a separate consideration. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • PVLV provides reinforcement learning signals to train up the dynamic gating system in the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The motor cortices send signals through the basal ganglia to refine the choice of muscles that will participate in the movement and to amplify the activity in the motor cortices that will drive the muscle contractions. (wikipedia.org)
  • initiation
  • The direct pathway of movement is a neuronal circuit within the central nervous system (CNS) through the basal ganglia which facilitates the initiation and execution of voluntary movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balance between various interacting neuronal systems such as locomotion which includes initiation and maintenance of rhythmic stepping, balance, and ability to adapt to the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural
  • Procedural memory is created through procedural learning or, repeating a complex activity over and over again until all of the relevant neural systems work together to automatically produce the activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • The existence of such a system as an isolated entity responsible for the neurological regulation of emotion has gone into disuse and currently it is considered as one of the many parts of the brain that regulate visceral, autonomic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • motor
  • It is part of the telencephalon, but retains close functional ties with the subthalamus - both of which are part of the extrapyramidal motor system. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common substrate of plasticity are the internal system of connections that are located around these regions, creating motor maps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this finding indicated that memory was not made up of a single system positioned in one place in the brain, at the time, others agreed that motor skills are likely a special case that represented a less cognitive form of memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Similar analyses have been performed on postmortem human basal ganglia tissue, and experiments are planned to extend these studies to postmortem tissue derived from patients with diagnosed Parkinsonism. (uci.edu)
  • several
  • Each stripe can be independently updated, such that this system can remember several different things at the same time, each with a different "updating policy" of when memories are updated and maintained. (wikipedia.org)
  • areas
  • 2013 ). On the one hand, following the observation that in the parkinsonian state, some areas of the basal ganglia exhibit an increased synchronization in the beta-band (Nini et al. (springer.com)