• aminoacyl-tRNA synthe
  • The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (also known as aminoacyl-tRNA ligases) catalyse the attachment of an amino acid to its cognate transfer RNA molecule in a highly specific two-step reaction [ PMID: 10704480 , PMID: 12458790 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are divided into two classes, I and II. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases contain a characteristic Rossman fold catalytic domain and are mostly monomeric [ PMID: 10673435 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases share an anti-parallel beta-sheet fold flanked by alpha-helices [ PMID: 8364025 ], and are mostly dimeric or multimeric, containing at least three conserved regions [ PMID: 8274143 , PMID: 2053131 , PMID: 1852601 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In reactions catalysed by the class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the aminoacyl group is coupled to the 2'-hydroxyl of the tRNA, while, in class II reactions, the 3'-hydroxyl site is preferred. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the genetic code, and the evolutionary process. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: versatile players in the changing theater of translation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Classes of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and the establishment of the genetic code. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Sequence, structural and evolutionary relationships between class 2 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Evolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases--analysis of unique domain architectures and phylogenetic trees reveals a complex history of horizontal gene transfer events. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (EC 6.1.1. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID
  • Based on their mode of binding to the tRNA acceptor stem, both classes of tRNA synthetases have been subdivided into three subclasses, designated 1a, 1b, 1c and 2a, 2b, 2c [ PMID: 10447505 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This family describes a region of the methionyl-tRNA synthetase that is present at the C terminus of MetG in some species (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Thermotoga maritima, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Methanobacterium thermoformicicum), and as a separate beta chain in Aquifex aeolicus [ PMID: 10369686 , PMID: 12481025 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • synthesis
  • Cytosine and uracil are converted into beta-alanine and later to malonyl-CoA which is needed for fatty acid synthesis, among other things. (wikipedia.org)
  • D-(+)-Biotin is a cofactor responsible for carbon dioxide transfer in several carboxylase enzymes: Acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha Acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase Propionyl-CoA carboxylase Pyruvate carboxylase Biotin is important in fatty acid synthesis, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Bacteria can have one (alr gene) or two alanine racemase genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, knockout studies have shown that without the alr gene being expressed, the bacteria would need an external source of D-alanine in order to survive. (wikipedia.org)
  • The predicted secondary structure of the gene contains multiple alpha-helices, with a few beta-sheet structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • FAM149B1 is shown to be at a lower expression level than most other genes in a multiple myeloma cell line and was shown to increase to close to average gene expression levels after the beta-catenin was depleted from the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis), while Pyrococcus horikoshii has both a full length MetG and a second protein homologous to the beta chain only. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The secondary structure of the protein is predicted to be a combination of mostly alpha-helices with a few predicted beta-sheet structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphate
  • The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor lies in and above the mouth of the alpha/beta barrel and is covalently linked via an aldimine linkage to a lysine residue, which is at the C terminus of the first beta-strand of the alpha/beta barrel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemistry
  • The information on this site, was designed to be used as a beta-alanine guide and is organized in a hands-on, easy-to-follow approach manner- with no fancy biochemistry or confusing graphs. (anabolicminds.com)
  • uracil
  • However, obtaining beta-alanine through these dipeptides is not the only way, as our bodies can synthesize it in the liver from the catabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides which are broken down into uracil and thymine and then metabolized into beta-alanine and B-aminoisobutyrate. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Cytosine can be broken down to uracil, which can be further broken down to N-carbamoyl-β-alanine, and then to beta-alanine, CO2, and ammonia by beta-ureidopropionase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rossman
  • The N-terminal half (domains 1 and 2) contains the 'Rossman fold' typical for class I synthetases and resembles the corresponding part of E. coli GlnRS, whereas the C-terminal half exhibits a GluRS-specific structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • The traditional mechanism attributed to an alanine racemase reaction is that of a two-base mechanism with a PLP-stabilized carbanion intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • UTP can be converted to CTP (cytidine-triphosphate) in a reaction catalyzed by CTP synthetase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This biotinylation reaction requires ATP and is catalyzed by holocarboxylase synthetase. (wikipedia.org)
  • terminus
  • The structure of alanine racemase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (Geobacillus stearothermophilus) was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.9 A. The alanine racemase monomer is composed of two domains, an eight-stranded alpha/beta barrel at the N terminus, and a C-terminal domain essentially composed of beta-strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, tRNA binding involves an alpha-helical structure that is conserved between class I and class II synthetases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • products
  • Beta-Alanine efficacy is backed by major university, peer-reviewed studies performed on humans, not a cell, rat or goat study upon which other products typically base claims. (anabolicminds.com)