• Leydig
  • Hypogonadism and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism Gonadal dysgenesis and premature ovarian failure Leydig cell hypoplasia (or LH insensitivity) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone insensitivity Inborn errors of steroid metabolism Isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency Combined 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III deficiency Aromatase deficiency and estrogen insensitivity syndrome Mark A. Sperling (25 April 2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • Leydig cells, thyroid hormones and steroidogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Leydig cells are the primary source of androgens in the mammalian testis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is established that the luteinizing hormone (LH) produced by the anterior pituitary is required to maintain the structure and function of the Leydig cells in the postnatal testis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • P450scc, 3 beta HSD, P450c17 and P450arom were detected in all Leydig cells of adults. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The testes are undescended and the resident steroidogenic Leydig cells are modestly affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to the adrenal gland, cholesterol accumulation damages the Leydig cells of the testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • LH acts upon the Leydig cells of the testis and is regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). (wikipedia.org)
  • The now-induced Leydig cells of the testis then start secreting testosterone, while the Sertoli cells produce anti-Müllerian hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • LH insensitivity, which results in Leydig cell hypoplasia in males, and FSH insensitivity, are conditions of insensitivity to LH and FSH, respectively, caused by loss-of-function mutations in their respective signaling receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • follicles
  • Women begin puberty with about 400,000 follicles, each with the potential to release an egg cell (ovum) at ovulation for fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In females, FSH insensitivity results in diminished development of ovarian follicles and granulosa cells and low to normal estrogen levels, elevated to very elevated gonadotropin levels, and low inhibin B levels, whereas males present with diminished Sertoli cell proliferation and moderately elevated FSH levels, normal to slightly elevated LH levels, normal testosterone levels, and reduced inhibin B levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primordial follicles containing the primary oocyte, arrested at prophase of meiosis I, develop into primary follicle containing cuboidal granulosa cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • paracrine
  • Paracrine interactions between the developing oocyte and its surrounding follicular cells is essential for the correct progression of both the follicle and the oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone
  • The estrogen:ER complex binds to specific DNA sequences called a hormone response element to activate the transcription of target genes (in a study using an estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell line as model, 89 such genes were identified). (wikipedia.org)
  • Which hormone acts on the granulosa cells of the follicle? (sporcle.com)
  • They also produce peptides involved in ovarian hormone synthesis regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin- like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is produced in theca cells in response to gonadotropin stimulation, and this response is enhanced by estradiol and growth hormone. (slideserve.com)
  • More than a decade of research has shown that Sertoli cell proliferation is regulated by thyroid hormone. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hormones that stimulate its production depend on the cell type and include luteinizing hormone (LH), ACTH and angiotensin II. (wikipedia.org)
  • It arises from defects in the earliest stages of steroid hormone synthesis: the transport of cholesterol into the mitochondria and the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone-the first step in the synthesis of all steroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deficiency results in impaired synthesis of all three categories of adrenal steroids (cortisol, mineralocorticoids, sex steroids) and high levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intracellular levels of free alpha subunits are greater than those of the mature glycoprotein, implying that hormone assembly is limited by the appearance of the specific beta subunits, and hence that synthesis of alpha and beta is independently regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • oocyte
  • Oocyte control of granulosa and theca cell function may be mediated by several growth factors via a local feedback loop(s) between these cell types. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Each of them contains a single oocyte (immature ovum or egg cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows the oocyte to be surrounded by a single layer of flattened granulosa cells to form a primordial follicle ( Fig. 347-1 ) . (mhmedical.com)
  • GDF9 acts through two receptors on the cells surrounding the oocyte, it binds to bone morphogenic protein receptor 2 (BMPRII) and downstream to this utilizes the TGF-ß receptor type 1 (ALK5). (wikipedia.org)
  • The proliferative ability of granulosa cells is significantly reduced whereby no more than a single layer of granulosa cells is able to surround and thus support the developing oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • As cumulus cells surround the oocyte during development and remain with the oocyte once it is ovulated, GDF9 expression in cumulus cells is important in allowing an ideal oocyte microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • This follicle consists of the oocyte surrounded by flattened pregranulosa cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • testis
  • SOX9 is a sex-determining factor which induces Sertoli cell differentiation and subsequent testis cord formation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Despite the importance of peritubular myoid (PM) cells in the histogenesis of the fetal testis, understanding the origin and function of these cells has been hampered by the lack of suitable markers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to obtain detailed quantitative information on all cell types in the testis interstitium of Korean ring-necked pheasants and to combine these data with changes in the steroidogenic function of the testis during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Neonatal hypothyroidism lengthens the period of Sertoli cell proliferation, leading to increases in Sertoli cell number, testis weight, and daily sperm production (DSP) when euthyroidism is re-established. (biomedsearch.com)
  • cholesterol
  • The primary molecule that begins the synthesis of estrogen is cholesterol. (news-medical.net)
  • The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not apoptosis occurs in Sertoli cells in presence of 25-hydroxycholesterol, an oxysterol derived from cholesterol-containing foods or endogenous oxidation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cholesterol needs to be transferred from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner membrane where cytochrome P450scc enzyme (CYP11A1) cleaves the cholesterol side chain, which is the first enzymatic step in all steroid synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasias are a family of autosomal recessive diseases resulting from defects in steps of the synthesis of steroid hormones from cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the absence of this, ACTH levels are elevated and cholesterol uptake by the cortical cells continues unabated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to the LH surge, GDF9 supports the metabolic function of cumulus cells, allowing glycolysis and cholesterol biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon stimulation of a cell to make steroid, the amount of StAR available to transfer cholesterol to the inner membrane limits how fast the reaction can go (the acute phase). (wikipedia.org)
  • primordial
  • Oogenesis takes place during fetal life, in which primordial germ cells undergo mitosis until a few weeks prior to birth, forming oogonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycoprotein
  • The cell walls of archaea have various compositions, and may be formed of glycoprotein S-layers, pseudopeptidoglycan, or polysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • gonadal
  • The use of insulin-sensitizer compounds, such as metformin, permits great improvement of such metabolic abnormality, restoring ovarian function and gonadal steroid synthesis and reducing insulin resistance. (redorbit.com)
  • The gonadal ridge produces the steroidogenic cells for both the gonads and the adrenal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sertoli
  • Apoptotic effects of 25-hydroxycholesterol in immature rat Sertoli cells: prevention by 17beta-estradiol. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we provide evidence that 25-hydroxycholesterol can induce cultured Sertoli cells of immature rat to undergo apoptosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is expressed both in male and female undifferentiated gonads in the cytoplasmic compartment of pre-Sertoli cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Males
  • In males, INSL3 regulates testicular descent during fetal life, whereas in adults, it acts as a germ cell survival factor. (biomedsearch.com)
  • receptor
  • Signals triggered by binding to the receptor are relayed within the cells by the cyclic AMP second messenger system. (wikipedia.org)
  • steroidogenic
  • In each steroidogenic cell, the expression of the P450scc system proteins is regulated by the trophic hormonal system specific for the cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin
  • The aims of these studies were to determine the role of insulin signaling in the development and function of ovarian theca cells and the pathophysiologic effects of hyperinsulinism on ovarian function in obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • No changes in reproductive development or function were observed in lean Cyp17IRKO female mice, suggesting that insulin signaling in TI cell is not essential for reproduction. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • While the fetal pancreas has functional beta cells by 14 to 24 weeks of gestation, the amount of insulin that is released into the bloodstream is relatively low. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The primary cell wall of most plant cells is freely permeable to small molecules including small proteins, with size exclusion estimated to be 30-60 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adrenal cortex cells from zona fasciculata, the expression of the mRNAs encoding all three P450scc proteins is induced by corticotropin (ACTH). (wikipedia.org)
  • oocytes
  • The altered phenotype observed in GDF9 deficient oocytes likely results from the lack off somatic cell input in later stages of folliculogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in an expanding or dispersed pattern of the cumulus oophorus around the egg cell, facilitating its identification within follicular fluid.This leads to improved maturation and quality of the oocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular matrix
  • By the 1980s, some authors suggested replacing the term "cell wall", particularly as it was used for plants, with the more precise term "extracellular matrix", as used for animal cells, but others preferred the older term. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus does the prokaryote cell (and eukaryotic cell that possesses a cell wall) gain strength from a flexible plasma membrane pressing against a rigid cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apparent rigidity of the cell wall thus results from inflation of the cell contained within. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH
  • The synthesis and release of both LH and FSH are stimulated by GnRH, which is synthesized by hypothalamic neurons ( 8 , 40 , 53 ). (physiology.org)
  • gene
  • In contrast to the alpha gene activity, beta LH subunit gene activity is restricted to the pituitary gonadotropic cells. (wikipedia.org)