• regulation
  • The mechanism of this change in AsA synthesis involves several levels of regulation. (plantcell.org)
  • Publications] Takao Yamaura: 'Participation of phytochrome in the regulation of terpenoid synthesis in thyme seedlings' Plant Cell Physiol.32. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Transgenic cucumber plants revealed that the gene is required by seedlings to tolerate chilling stress: constitutive over-expression of CsNOA1 led to a greater accumulation of soluble sugars, starch, and an up-regulation of Cold-regulatory C-repeat binding factor3 ( CBF3 ) expression as well as a lower chilling damage index (CI). (frontiersin.org)
  • Some parenchyma cells, as in the epidermis, are specialized for light penetration and focusing or regulation of gas exchange, but others are among the least specialized cells in plant tissue, and may remain totipotent, capable of dividing to produce new populations of undifferentiated cells, throughout their lives. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • phi1 mutants were impaired in the gene encoding an FAd subunit of mitochondrial F1Fo-ATP synthase and showed a reduced mitochondrial ATP level in roots, growth hypersensitivity to oligomycin and an increased mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that this gene has a crucial role in mitochondrial ATP synthesis. (deepdyve.com)
  • Despite the recognized physiological importance of transfer cells, little is known about how these specialized cells achieve localized deposition of cell wall material, leading to amplification of plasma membrane surface area and enhanced membrane transport capacity. (oup.com)
  • The removal of the cell wall from plant cells, for example, has created new and exciting possibilities for exploring the structure, chemistry and function of the plant plasma membrane. (springer.com)
  • A.R.D. Taylor and J.L. Hall, An ultrastructural comparison of lanthanum and silicotungstic acid/chromic acid as plasma membrane stains of isolated protoplasts, Plant Sci. (springer.com)
  • 3. Cell membrane. (uvigo.es)
  • After depolarization of the cell in which Na+ flows into the cell, the Na+ cannot be transported back into the extracellular membrane, causing the sodium gradient to disappear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membrane is a protective barrier that regulates what enters and leaves the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In prokaryotes endomembranes are rare, although in many photosynthetic bacteria the plasma membrane is highly folded and most of the cell cytoplasm is filled with layers of light-gathering membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract
  • Leong, Shang Jye;Lu, Wen-Chien;Chiou, Tzyy-Jen 2018-03-05 00:00:00 Abstract Despite the essential role of phosphate (Pi) in plant growth and development, how plants sense and signal the change of Pi supply to adjust its uptake and utilization is not yet well understood. (deepdyve.com)
  • plastids
  • Major site of fatty acid synthesis in plants is plastids, where the prokaryotic forms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase are located. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Plastids, the most notable being the chloroplast, which contains chlorophyll, a green-colored pigment that absorbs sunlight, and allows the plant to make its own food in the process known as photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other types of plastids are the amyloplasts, specialized for starch storage, elaioplasts specialized for fat storage, and chromoplasts specialized for synthesis and storage of pigments. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in mitochondria, which have a genome encoding 37 genes, plastids have their own genomes of about 100-120 unique genes and, it is presumed, arose as prokaryotic endosymbionts living in the cells of an early eukaryotic ancestor of the land plants and algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • The various membranes that enclose the other subcellular organelles must therefore be constructed by transfer of lipids from these sites of synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, although it is clear that lipid transport is a central process in organelle biogenesis, the mechanisms by which lipids are transported through cells remain poorly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • walls
  • Xylem cells develop secondary cell walls (SCWs) that form the largest part of plant lignocellulosic biomass that serve as a renewable feedstock for biofuel production. (frontiersin.org)
  • And the final section discusses the use of chemical pretreatments as a screening and analysis tool for rapid identification of amenable plant materials, and for expansion of the fundamental understanding of plant cell walls. (springer.com)
  • Abramson M, Shoseyov O, Hirsch S, Shani Z (2013) Genetic modifications of plant cell walls to increase biomass and bioethanol production. (springer.com)
  • Using of autofluorescence of anatomical structures, such as lignified cell walls, it was possible to determine the changes of important shoot and root structures, mainly vascular bungles and development of secondary thickening. (mdpi.com)
  • Cell walls perform many essential functions: they provide shape to form the tissue and organs of the plant, and play an important role in intercellular communication and plant-microbe interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Vascular tissues are important for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant and as physical support of upright growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plant vascular tissues are composed of xylem, phloem and the intervening procambial or cambial cells ( Eames and MacDaniels, 1947 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Plant stems contain most of the collectable terrestrial biomass, but the study of vascular procambium initiation in the stem is impeded because these cells are imbedded under layers of other tissues and are difficult to access. (frontiersin.org)
  • Further we employed laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of spatial distribution of silver(I) ions in tissues of the treated plants. (mdpi.com)
  • Its primary function would arguably be to give the cell its shape and mechanical resistance to deformation, and through association with extracellular connective tissue and other cells it stabilizes entire tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large numbers of amyloplasts can be found in fruit and in underground storage tissues of some plants, such as in potato tubers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of this cell type is to support the plant in axes still growing in length, and to confer flexibility and tensile strength on tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • In order to more economically process cellulosic feedstocks using a biochemical pathway for fuel production, it is necessary to develop a detailed understanding of plant cell wall characteristics, pretreatment reaction chemistry, and their complex interactions. (springer.com)
  • The fourth section summarizes current directions in the development of novel plant materials for improved biochemical conversion. (springer.com)
  • inhibit
  • Both oleandrin and oleandrigenin, as well as their relatives, may be able to inhibit proliferation of tumor cells and stimulate their apoptosis as a result of the high concentration of intracellular calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • A method for controlling and modifying biopolymer synthesis by manipulation of the genetics and enzymology of synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polyesters at the molecular level in procaryotic and eukaryotic cells, especially plants. (google.com)
  • During contraction of a muscle, within each muscle cell, myosin molecular motors collectively exert forces on parallel actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymatic
  • In this respect, the enzymatic properties of the mixed-linkage β-glucan synthases not only provide special insight into the mechanisms of (1→4)β-glycan synthesis but may also uncover the genes that encode the synthases themselves. (deepdyve.com)
  • crucial
  • To make muscle contraction possible, a calcium influx from the extracellular fluid into the cell is crucial. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptional
  • Plant hormones, transcriptional regulators and peptide signaling regulate procambium/cambium proliferation, vascular patterning, and xylem differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • scanning electron m
  • Using field emission scanning electron microscopy, wall ingrowths were first visible in epidermal transfer cells of Faba bean cotyledons as raised 'patches' of disorganized and tangled cellulosic material, and, from these structures, ingrowths emerged via further deposition of wall material. (oup.com)
  • J. Burgess, P.J. Linstead and V.E.L. Fisher, Studies on higher plant protoplasts by scanning electron microscopy, Micron 8:113-122 (1977). (springer.com)
  • polymers
  • Alonso-Simón A, Kristensen JB, Øbro J, Felby C, Willats WGT, Jørgensen H (2010) High-throughput microarray profiling of cell wall polymers during hydrothermal pre-treatment of wheat straw. (springer.com)
  • Cultures
  • They are usually derived from either leaf tissue or from cell suspension cultures and have been isolated from a wide variety of plant species. (springer.com)
  • 2011) A population balance equation model of aggregation dynamics in Taxus suspension cell cultures. (openwetware.org)
  • The oleandrin itself can be won out of the leaves and other parts of the plant but can also be produced in the lab by using cell cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, the oleandrin synthesis (along with other metabolites) can be stimulated in untransformed plant cell cultures with supplementation of phytohormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic cultures of Agrobacteria are able to synthesize great quantities of oleandrin and other metabolites of the oleander plants, fit for pharmaceutical purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • potato tubers
  • Others, such as the majority of the parenchyma cells in potato tubers and the seed cotyledons of legumes, have a storage function. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • These plant viruses have circular, single-stranded DNA genomes that replicate mainly by a rolling-circle mechanism. (deepdyve.com)
  • vacuoles
  • J.A. Saunders and E.E. Conn, Presence of the cyonogenic glucoside dhurrin in isolated vacuoles from sorghum, Plant Physiol. (springer.com)
  • Vacuoles, which are found in both plant and animal cells (though much bigger in plant cells), are responsible for maintaining the shape and structure of the cell as well as storing waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary cell
  • Microfibrils in the primary cell wall are approximately 36 chains long while those of the secondary cell wall are much larger, containing up to 1200 β-(1→4)-glucan chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells develop an extensive secondary cell wall that is laid down on the inside of the primary cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • H. Lorz and I. Potrykus, Investigations on the transfer of isolated nuclei into plant protoplasts, Theor. (springer.com)
  • meristem
  • These cells mature from meristem derivatives that initially resemble parenchyma, but differences quickly become apparent. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • Apart from the xylem and phloem in their vascular bundles, leaves are composed mainly of parenchyma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic
  • When overexpressing CsNOA1 in the Atnoa1 mutant under normal condition, no obvious phenotypic differences was observed between its wild type and transgenic plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • cytoskeleton
  • The structure, function and dynamic behavior of the cytoskeleton can be very different, depending on organism and cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even within one cell the cytoskeleton can change through association with other proteins and the previous history of the network. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoskeleton can also contract, thereby deforming the cell and the cell's environment and allowing cells to migrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1903, Nikolai K. Koltsov proposed that the shape of cells was determined by a network of tubules that he termed the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoskeleton provides the cell with structure and shape, and by excluding macromolecules from some of the cytosol, it adds to the level of macromolecular crowding in this compartment. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • It is recommended in NICE guidance of June 2001 that it should be used for nonsmall cell lung cancer in patients unsuitable for curative treatment, and in first-line and second-line treatment of ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Introduction Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for cell growth and development. (deepdyve.com)
  • Plants are frequently exposed to adverse environmental conditions that can limit growth and development, among which low temperature is a key factor. (frontiersin.org)
  • DIDS was further demonstrated to disrupt Cl − efflux from the apex, indicating that Cl − flux correlates with pollen tube growth and cell volume status. (plantcell.org)
  • Ins(3,4,5,6)P 4 decreased the mean growth rate by 85%, increased the cell volume to 5997 ± 148 μm 3 , and disrupted normal Cl − efflux oscillations. (plantcell.org)
  • Differential interference contrast microscopy and kymographic analysis of individual growth cycles revealed that vesicles can advance transiently to within 2 to 4 μm of the apex during the phase of maximally increasing Cl − efflux, which temporally overlaps the phase of cell elongation during the growth cycle. (plantcell.org)
  • We found that the treated plants embodied growth depression, coloured changes and lack root hairs. (mdpi.com)
  • synthesize
  • Plants synthesize AsA via multiple pathways and do seem to make their vitamins in the morning, as AsA contents increase during the day and decrease at night. (plantcell.org)
  • Plants synthesize seed oil during seed development. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2000
  • Indeed, plants, which make rather than take their vitamins, use ascorbic acid (AsA), or vitamin C, as a key antioxidant in photoprotection (reviewed in Smirnoff, 2000 ). (plantcell.org)
  • genes
  • The majority of genes were repressed by Pi starvation and, unlike wild-type plants, their repression in phi1 was not affected by the addition of Phi. (deepdyve.com)
  • cytokinesis
  • Cell division by construction of a phragmoplast as a template for building a cell plate late in cytokinesis is characteristic of land plants and a few groups of algae, notably the Charophytes and the Chlorophyte Order Trentepohliales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wall
  • Protoplasts are spherical naked plant cells produced by the removal of the cell wall with digestive enzymes (Fig. 1). (springer.com)
  • Plant protoplasts can be cultured in defined media and will form a new cell wall, divide, and in many cases regenerate complete plants (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4). (springer.com)
  • However given the large number of thermochemical pretreatment methods that are currently being researched and the extreme diversity of plant cell wall structure and composition, this prospect is extremely challenging. (springer.com)
  • The first two sections discuss the chemistry of the secondary plant cell wall and how different pretreatment methods alter the overall cell wall structure. (springer.com)
  • The third section addresses how the characteristics of the cell wall and pretreatment efficacy are impacted by different factors such as plant maturity, classification, and plant fraction. (springer.com)
  • and can be a template for the construction of a cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collenchyma cells - collenchyma cells are alive at maturity and have only a primary wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wall is most commonly thickest at the corners, where three or more cells come in contact, and thinnest where only two cells come in contact, though other arrangements of the wall thickening are possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary wall lacks lignin that would make it tough and rigid, so this cell type provides what could be called plastic support - support that can hold a young stem or petiole into the air, but in cells that can be stretched as the cells around them elongate. (wikipedia.org)