• levulinate
  • Herein, this review focuses on the transformation of levulinic acid and alkyl levulinate into biofuels and high-valued chemicals, such as γ-valerolactone, 2-methyltetrahydrofurnan, valeric acid/alkyl valerates, 1,4-pentanediol and N -substituted pyrrolidinones. (rsc.org)
  • ethyl
  • The equation for this synthesis is: 2 C6H5OH + CH3C(O)CH2CH2COOH → CH3C(p-C6H4OH)2CH2CH2COOH + H2O Diphenolic acid is a solid at room temperature, melting at 168-171 °C and boiling at 507 °C. According to its MSDS, diphenolic acid is soluble in ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, acetic acid, and methyl ethyl ketone, but insoluble in benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and xylene. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemicals
  • In 1956 it was identified as a platform chemical with high potential and in 2004 the US Department of Energy (U.S. DoE) identified levulinic acid by screening approximately 300 substances as one of the 12 potential platform chemicals in the biorefinery concept. (wikipedia.org)
  • acetic acid
  • The present invention relates to a preparation method of 4-isopropylamino-1-butanol, in which using cheap and readily available tetrahydrofuran and acetic acid. (patents.com)
  • Fischer's procedure involves treating defribrinated blood with a solution of sodium chloride in acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemin can be produced from haemoglobin by the so-called Teichmann test, when haemoglobin is heated with glacial acetic acid (saturated with saline). (wikipedia.org)
  • sulfuric acid
  • HMF was first reported in 1875 as an intermediate in the formation of levulinic acid from sugar and sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lab scale synthesis of 1,4-butanesultone starts from 4,4'-dichlorodibutyl ether (accessible from tetrahydrofuran treated with phosphorus oxychloride and concentrated sulfuric acid), which reacts with sodium sulfite forming the corresponding 4,4'-butanedisulfonic disodium salt. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vacuum distillation of the sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutanesulfonic acid leads in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid directly to 1,4-butanesultone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ionic liquid 4-triethylammonium butane-1-sulfonic acid hydrogensulfate (TEBSA HSO4) is formed by the reaction of 1,4-butanesultone with triethylamine in acetonitrile to the zwitterion (85% yield) and subsequent reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • dilute
  • The processes are conducted in a continuous manner using lignocellulose as inexpensive starting material which is impregnated by dilute mineral acid and transferred to a high pressure reactor where it is heated with steam to allow the reaction to form levulinic acid to take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • terephthalic acid
  • Oxidation of MMF results in the formation of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, which has been proposed as a replacement of terephthalic acid for the production of a wide range of plastics including polyesters and polyamides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these the most important is 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, which has been proposed as a replacement for terephthalic acid in the production of polyesters. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic
  • Moreover, the catalytic performances of heterogeneous catalytic systems are influenced by numerous factors, such as the size of the metal particles, surface morphology and acid density. (rsc.org)
  • fatty
  • Owed to cationic grandeur, it is tense to negatively charged bacterial membranes, where it cleaves fatty acids from phospholipids, reduc- ing bacterial expansion and viability [13, (bonetumor.org)
  • Alpha keto acids are used primarily as energy for liver cells and in fatty acid synthesis, also in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • water solubility
  • Aminoalkylphosphonic acids (such as aminomethane diphosphonic acid, accessible from phosphorus trichloride, formamide and phosphonic acid) form with 1,4-butanesultone N-(sulfobutyl)aminomethane diphosphonic acids: N-(sulfobutyl)aminomethane diphosphonic acid is characterized by very high water solubility ( (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • Levulinic acid, or 4-oxopentanoic acid, is an organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH2CH2CO2H. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organic Syntheses. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Synthesis and stereodynamics of N-nitrosopiperidines and N-nitrosopiperidin-4-ones," The Journal of Organic Chemistry , vol. 56, no. 16, pp. 4833-4840, 1991. (hindawi.com)
  • 1,4-butanesultone is a viscous, clear, colorless and odorless liquid which reacts in boiling water (to 4-hydroxybutanesulfonic acid) and alcohols (to 4-alkoxybutanesulfonic acid) and dissolves in many organic solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • valeric
  • δ-Valerolactone Valeric acid 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BD) γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) NIH National Toxicology Program Andresen-Streichert H, Jungen H, Gehl A, Müller A, Iwersen-Bergmann S (2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • intermediate
  • Reexamination of tetrapyrrole intermediate levels of the Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) knockout ntrc reveals lower magnesium protoporphyrin IX ( MgP ) and MgPMME steady-state levels, the substrate and the product of MgP methyltransferase (CHLM) preceding MgPMME cyclase, while MgP strongly accumulates in mutant leaves after 5-aminolevulinic acid feeding. (plantphysiol.org)
  • chemistry
  • Synthesis and evaluation of anticancer activity of some novel 6-aryl-2-(p-sulfamylphenyl)-pyridazin-3(2H)-ones," European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , vol. 49, pp. 304-309, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Ulosonic acids Franz Dietrich Klingler, Wolfgang Ebertz "Oxocarboxylic Acids" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • The parent heterocycle was first prepared by oxidation of benzocinnoline to the pyridazinetetracarboxylic acid followed by decarboxylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • alkyl
  • Alkyl levulinates derived from LA have similar chemical properties to LA and are also used for the synthesis of LA derived molecules. (rsc.org)
  • tetrahydrofuran
  • Starting from 4-chlorobutan-1-ol (from tetrahydrofuran and hydrogen chloride in 54 to 57% yield), the sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutan-1-sulfonic acid is obtained with sodium sulfite. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • By passing it through an acidic ion exchanger, the disodium salt is converted into the disulphonic acid which forms two molecules of 1,4-butanesultone at elevated temperature and reduced pressure under elimination of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • Provided is a synthesis process for a chiral cyclopropyl ethynyl tertiary alcohol compound, where a chiral amino alcohol or a chiral amino diol is reacted in. (patents.com)
  • The first step in this process is the ring-opening of GVL to yield a mixture of pentenoic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium
  • The sodium salt of 4-chlorobutane-1-sulfonic acid, which is obtained from 1,4-dichlorobutane with sodium sulfite, can also be cyclized to 1,4-butanesultone by heating to 180-250 °C. The free-radical initiated sulfochlorination of 1-chlorobutane leads to a mixture of positionally isomeric sulfochlorides and chlorination products and is therefore not suitable for the direct preparation of 1,4-butanesultone. (wikipedia.org)
  • altering the activity
  • It is hypothesized that a deficiency of NTRC leads to a lower capacity to reduce cysteine residues of GluTR1 and CHLM, affecting the stability and, thereby, altering the activity in the entire tetrapyrrole synthesis pathway. (plantphysiol.org)
  • synthesize
  • The ntrc mutant has a reduced capacity to synthesize 5-aminolevulinic acid and reduced CHLM activity compared with the wild type. (plantphysiol.org)