• neurons
  • We have found changes in postsynaptic AMPA receptor sensitivity in neurons of the chick cochlear nucleus, the nucleus magnocellularis (nMAG), by photolysis of caged glutamate immediately after activation of a single synaptic input. (jneurosci.org)
  • These findings confirm that postsynaptic neurons may use desensitization to regulate the strength of transmission on a synapse-specific basis. (jneurosci.org)
  • We directly tested for desensitization in the present study with whole-cell recording techniques on nucleus magnocellularis (nMAG) neurons in brainstem slices in which receptor sensitivity was assayed immediately after the eEPSC, and we show that significant receptor desensitization can occur during synaptic transmission. (jneurosci.org)
  • We conclude that excitatory glutamatergic transmission in thalamic neurons in vitro was mediated mainly by HVA calcium currents, which were insensitive to omega-CgTx and nifedipine. (jneurosci.org)
  • Zn2+ inhibits NMDA and GABAA receptors (NMDAR and GABAAR) at mono-synaptic inputs between MFs and CA3 pyramidal neurons but its role in synaptic integration in the dentate gyrus remains elusive. (bl.uk)
  • We conclude that synaptic transmission between primary afferents and MVN neurons may contribute to frequency filtering in the vestibular pathway. (springer.com)
  • In neurons, transporter reversal facilitates the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, resulting in a higher concentration of synaptic neurotransmitters and increased signaling through the corresponding neurotransmitter receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, many monoamine releasing agents cause monoamine neurotransmitter efflux (i.e., the release of monoamine neurotransmitters from neurons into the synaptic cleft via monoamine transporter-mediated release) by triggering reverse transport at vesicular monoamine transporters (specifically, VMAT1 and VMAT2) and other monoamine transporters that are located along the plasma membrane of neurons (specifically, DAT, NET, and SERT). (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently he analyzed the proteome of synaptic vesicles and the role of nucleotide signaling in the control of adult neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons in the adult mammalian brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • However 21st century neuroscience has recognized that glial cells do have some effects on certain physiological processes like breathing, and in assisting the neurons to form synaptic connections between each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hippocampal stratum oriens astrocytes, which respond to synaptic activity from glutamatergic neurons originating in the Schaffer collateral and cholinergic neurons originating in the alveus, produce changes in their intracellular calcium concentrations that is non-linear with the strength of synaptic input. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamatergic
  • This is not merely due to a sensitivity of these astrocytes exclusive to acetylcholine, as they will also respond to glutamatergic synaptic activity originating from a different brain region, the Schaffer collateral. (wikipedia.org)
  • synapse
  • In the chick, such temporal resolution necessitates accurate and reliable transmission of auditory nerve activity by the end-bulb synapse in the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (nMag). (jneurosci.org)
  • Tripartite synapse refers to the functional integration and physical proximity of the presynaptic membrane, postsynaptic membrane, and their intimate association with surrounding glia as well as the combined contributions of these three synaptic components to the production of activity at the chemical synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term was first introduced in the late 1990s to account for a growing body of evidence that glia are not merely passive neuronal support cells but, instead, play an active role in the integration of synaptic information through bidirectional communication with the neuronal components of the synapse as mediated by neurotransmitters and gliotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volterra, A. The Tripartite Synapse: Glia in Synaptic Transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • AMPA
  • The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • We propose that the control of synaptic transfer of a dynamically complex signal by graded changes in membrane potential and spikes is useful to enable a temporally precise coupling of spikes in response to sudden transitions in stimulus intensity. (wiley.com)
  • If the voltage changes by a large enough amount, an all-or-none electrochemical pulse called an action potential is generated and this change in cross-membrane potential travels rapidly along the cell's axon, and activates synaptic connections with other cells when it arrives. (wikipedia.org)
  • To achieve this, they developed a voltage-clamp technique to demonstrate that impulse transmission relied upon the selective permeability of the nerve fibre membrane to particular ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotransmitter
  • A multiplicity of transmitters are utilized by autonomic nerves, and co-transmission occurs often involving synergistic actions of the co-transmitters, although pre- and post-junctional neuromodulation of neurotransmitter release also take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphological
  • This study expands upon this initial finding by thoroughly evaluating CNTNAP2 function in governing neuronal development and synaptic transmission using morphological and electrophysiological assays routinely applied in the mentors' labs. (autismspeaks.org)
  • protein
  • Of note, AMPARs cannot directly bind to the common synaptic protein PSD-95 owing to incompatible PDZ domains, although they do interact with PSD-95 via stargazin (the prototypical member of the TARP family of AMPAR auxiliary subunits). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally
  • Additionally, synaptic desensitization was demonstrated via competition between synaptically released glutamate and an exogenous nondesensitizing agonist, kainate. (jneurosci.org)
  • nerve impulses
  • Since 1996, he has researched the fundamental properties of the transmission of nerve impulses in the brain and developed new nanoscale imaging techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Henry Dale and Otto Loewi both worked in Ernest Starling's laboratory in 1904 and went on to share the 1936 Nobel Prize for Medicine for their seminal investigation on the chemical transmission of nerve impulses. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellularly
  • He further showed that ATP released from the electric nerves is hydrolyzed extracellularly to adenosine that is recycled via a high affinity transport mechanism into the nerve terminals where it is rephosphorylated and taken up in the form of ATP into synaptic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Herbert Zimmermann (born 10 January 1944) is a German neuroscientist who pioneered the studies on the biochemical, structural and functional heterogeneity of cholinergic synaptic vesicles from the electric organ of the electric ray Torpedo, and the functional and biochemical characterization of enzymes hydrolyzing extracellular nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Developmental changes in patterns and levels of activity in the auditory system further predict that maturation of transmission in nMag occurs around the time of hatching. (jneurosci.org)
  • Regehr was one of the first to use fluorescent imaging to see the synaptic activity occurring in the brain. (wikipedia.org)