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  • Tourette's
  • Tourette's is defined as part of a spectrum of tic disorders, which includes provisional and chronic tics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was once considered a rare and bizarre syndrome, most often associated with coprolalia (the utterance of obscene words or socially inappropriate and derogatory remarks), but this symptom is present in only a small minority of people with Tourette's. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tourette's was classified by the fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) as one of several tic disorders "usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence" according to type (motor or phonic tics) and duration (transient or chronic). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Tourette's is the more severe expression of the spectrum of tic disorders, most cases are mild. (wikipedia.org)
  • The severity of symptoms varies widely among people with Tourette's, and mild cases may be undetected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coprolalia (the spontaneous utterance of socially objectionable or taboo words or phrases) is the most publicized symptom of Tourette's, but it is not required for a diagnosis of Tourette's and only about 10% of Tourette's patients exhibit it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the abnormal movements of other movement disorders (for example, choreas, dystonias, myoclonus, and dyskinesias), the tics of Tourette's are temporarily suppressible, nonrhythmic, and often preceded by an unwanted premonitory urge. (wikipedia.org)
  • fMRI
  • Some fMRI studies have shown that directed attention involves changes in the anterior cingulate cortex and the lateral prefrontal cortex, perhaps as a consequence of increased connectivity between these two areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • mental disorder
  • Conduct disorder (CD) is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apparently children of parents who are both unemployed are at a higher risk for developing a mental disorder. (pendulum.org)
  • As defined by experts with a biomedical background, a mental disorder is "a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom. (wikipedia.org)
  • An overall distinction is also commonly made between a "medical model" (also known as a biomedical or disease model) and a "social model" (also known as an empowerment or recovery model) of mental disorder and disability, with the former focusing on hypothesized disease processes and symptoms, and the latter focusing on hypothesized social constructionism and social contexts. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • Two important books influenced the revolution: Plans and Structures of Behavior by George Miller, Eugene Galanter, and Karl H. Pribram in 1960 and Cognitive Psychology by Ulric Neisser in 1967. (wikipedia.org)
  • adults
  • About 30-50% of people diagnosed in childhood continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between 2-5% of adults have the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The British guideline only recommends medications as a first-line treatment in children who have severe symptoms and for medication to be considered in those with moderate symptoms who either refuse or fail to improve with counseling, though for adults medications are a first-line treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • interpersonal
  • Factor 1 captures traits dealing with the interpersonal and affective deficits of psychopathy (e.g., shallow affect, superficial charm, manipulativeness, lack of empathy) whereas factor 2 dealt with symptoms relating to antisocial behavior: (e.g., criminal versatility, impulsiveness, irresponsibility, poor behavior controls, juvenile delinquency). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • Such patterns of comorbidity among psychiatric disorders highlight possible common etiological processes, genetic influences, or maintaining factors among subsets of disorders, and may also have implications for treatment selection and responsiveness to specific therapies ( Krueger, 1999 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • diagnosis
  • In the United Kingdom, diagnosis is based on quite a narrow set of symptoms, and about 0.5-1% of children are thought to have attention or hyperactivity problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • An older 2003 review of linkage studies also listed seven genes as likely to increase risk for a later diagnosis of the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • tasks
  • Often has trouble keeping attention on tasks or play activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although one's efforts may involve very different tasks, each incoming stimulus calls upon the same directed attention mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] Directed attention, or voluntary attention, requires a great deal of concentration and focus, and is employed in tasks such as problem solving. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies that require participants to carry out attention-demanding tasks under conditions of high distraction reveal how unpleasant a mentally fatigued person can be. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatigue that is experienced by participants of these kinds of studies is induced by attention-intensive tasks, and the observed effects of such fatigue are correlated with decline in inhibitory control. (wikipedia.org)
  • personality
  • This temporary condition is not a clinical illness or a personality disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a 20-item inventory of perceived personality traits and recorded behaviors, intended to be completed on the basis of a semi-structured interview along with a review of 'collateral information' such as official records. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCL-R Factors 1a and 1b are correlated with narcissistic personality disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factor 1 has been correlated with narcissistic personality disorder, low anxiety, low empathy, low stress reaction and low suicide risk but high scores on scales of achievement and social potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohol
  • However, about 18 million adult Americans have an alcohol use disorder (AUD). (patientsville.com)
  • Had withdrawal symptoms when the alcohol was wearing off? (patientsville.com)
  • For example, if the "Chief Enabler" (the main enabler in the family) will often turn a blind eye to the addict's drug/alcohol use as this allows for the enabler to continue to play the victim and/or martyr role, while allowing the addict to continue his/her own destructive behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Correlations of mental disorders with drug use include cannabis, alcohol and caffeine. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff. (patientsville.com)
  • You might have the disease for only a short time, or symptoms might come and go. (patientsville.com)
  • Abnormal
  • Abnormal functioning of neurotransmitter systems has been implicated[citation needed] in several mental disorders, including serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine and glutamate systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • childhood
  • Tourette syndrome is an inherited neurological disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of motor and phonic tics. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • Studies have indicated[citation needed] that variation in genes can play an important role in the development of mental disorders, although the reliable identification of connections between specific genes and specific categories of disorder has proven more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • transient
  • Several authors have reported high rates of suicidal behaviour in acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Transient tic disorders consisted of multiple motor tics, phonic tics or both, with a duration between four weeks and twelve months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measures
  • The purpose of this study is examine the efficacy of atomoxetine on executive functioning measures including the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the executive function measures of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To examine the efficacy of atomoxetine on executive functioning measures including the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the executive function measures of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To examine the efficacy of atomoxetine on other neuropsychological measures including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the attention, memory, and paired learning tests of the CANTAB. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • directed attenti
  • Directed attention fatigue (DAF) is a neuro-psychological phenomenon that results from overuse of the brain's inhibitory attention mechanisms, which handle incoming distractions while maintaining focus on a specific task. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] Directed attention fatigue occurs when a particular part of the brain's global inhibitory system is overworked due to the suppression of increasing numbers of stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The onset of directed attention fatigue can be triggered by a number of activities, all of which involve use of the brain's inhibitory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any illness or injury to the brain that interrupts the brain circuits involved in maintaining attention and inhibiting external stimuli may also contribute to the development of directed attention fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • To address this apparent contradiction, confirmatory factor analytic methods and information-theoretic criteria were used to evaluate four theoretically plausible measurement models based on lifetime comorbidity patterns of seven putative externalizing disorders. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Non-random patterns of diagnostic comorbidity among some combinations of psychiatric disorders are common and likely meaningful. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • brain
  • The purpose of this study is to learn more about the functioning of particular types of regions of the brain, specifically, those related to externalizing disorders such as Attention Defic. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This type of attention employs the inhibitory mechanisms of the brain, which help block incoming stimuli that are unrelated to the task at hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several parts of the brain are involved in maintaining directed attention, primarily those located in the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the mechanism of directed attention employs the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the brain stem's basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • non-primary source needed] While these areas of the brain are known to be involved in DAF, their specific molecular mechanisms in the perpetuation of DAF symptoms are not yet known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traumatic brain injury may increase the risk of developing certain mental disorders. (wikipedia.org)