• attentional
  • Two domains of psychological functioning appear most susceptible to the effects of HIV infection on the central nervous system in children: expressive behavior and attentional processes (Brouwers, et al, 1994). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • page needed] Hence, there are two types of attention, distinguished in terms of the effort involved in their use and their changes in attentional shift: Involuntary attention refers to attention that requires no effort at all, as when something exciting or interesting happens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processes
  • Such patterns of comorbidity among psychiatric disorders highlight possible common etiological processes, genetic influences, or maintaining factors among subsets of disorders, and may also have implications for treatment selection and responsiveness to specific therapies ( Krueger, 1999 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An overall distinction is also commonly made between a "medical model" (also known as a biomedical or disease model) and a "social model" (also known as an empowerment or recovery model) of mental disorder and disability, with the former focusing on hypothesized disease processes and symptoms, and the latter focusing on hypothesized social constructionism and social contexts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological psychiatry has tended to follow a biomedical model focused on organic or "hardware" pathology of the brain, where many mental disorders are conceptualized as disorders of brain circuits likely caused by developmental processes shaped by a complex interplay of genetics and experience. (wikipedia.org)
  • comorbid
  • Additionally, a comparatively small proportion of the NCS sample (14%) that reported a psychiatric history of three or more comorbid disorders accounted for 59% of all diagnosed lifetime disorders. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There is some evidence to support the clinical lore that children with "TS-only" (Tourette syndrome in the absence of other comorbid conditions) are unusually gifted: neuropsychological studies have identified advantages in children with TS-only. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common areas of study include psychosocial development, environmental factors which contribute to the development of a disorder, outcomes of children with medical conditions, treating the comorbid behavioral and emotional components of illness and injury, and promoting proper health behaviors, developmental disabilities, educating psychologists and other health professionals on the psychological aspects of pediatric conditions, and advocating for public policy that promotes children's health. (wikipedia.org)
  • mental disorder
  • As defined by experts with a biomedical background, a mental disorder is "a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intervention
  • IBBS is a school-based intervention in which children with ADHD participate in cognitive training and physical exercises aimed at improving attention and executive functioning. (yale.edu)
  • Psychiatry
  • 1 , 2 Both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry have recently developed clinical practice guidelines for this disorder. (aappublications.org)
  • personality
  • This temporary condition is not a clinical illness or a personality disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a 20-item inventory of perceived personality traits and recorded behaviors, intended to be completed on the basis of a semi-structured interview along with a review of 'collateral information' such as official records. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCL-R Factors 1a and 1b are correlated with narcissistic personality disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factor 1 has been correlated with narcissistic personality disorder, low anxiety, low empathy, low stress reaction and low suicide risk but high scores on scales of achievement and social potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohol
  • However, about 18 million adult Americans have an alcohol use disorder (AUD). (patientsville.com)
  • Had withdrawal symptoms when the alcohol was wearing off? (patientsville.com)
  • For example, if the "Chief Enabler" (the main enabler in the family) will often turn a blind eye to the addict's drug/alcohol use as this allows for the enabler to continue to play the victim and/or martyr role, while allowing the addict to continue his/her own destructive behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Correlations of mental disorders with drug use include cannabis, alcohol and caffeine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease
  • Participants with an illness or disease also participate to help others, but also to possibly receive the newest treatment and to have the additional care and attention from the clinical trial staff. (patientsville.com)
  • You might have the disease for only a short time, or symptoms might come and go. (patientsville.com)
  • diagnosis
  • The K-ARS is a rating scale that is used for the ADHD diagnosis and the assessment of treatment efficacy and comprises 18 items in total on the basis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), each item being rated from 0-3 points. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • An ADHD diagnosis is contingent upon the symptoms of impairment presenting themselves in two or more settings (e.g., at school or work and at home). (wikipedia.org)
  • An older 2003 review of linkage studies also listed seven genes as likely to increase risk for a later diagnosis of the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal
  • Abnormal functioning of neurotransmitter systems has been implicated[citation needed] in several mental disorders, including serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine and glutamate systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • schizophrenia
  • However, schizophrenia is diagnosed on the basis of symptom profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family studies indicate that the closer a person's genetic relatedness to a person with schizophrenia, the greater the likelihood of developing the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADHD-PI
  • In children with ADHD-PI, symptom improvement occurred at lower doses and less benefit was derived from higher doses. (aappublications.org)
  • Lethargy and fatigue are sometimes reported, but ADHD-PI is a separate condition from the proposed cluster of symptoms known as sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • Studies have indicated[citation needed] that variation in genes can play an important role in the development of mental disorders, although the reliable identification of connections between specific genes and specific categories of disorder has proven more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • ADHD is commonly linked to "core" deficits involving "executive function," "delay aversion," or "activation/arousal" theories that attempt to explain ADHD through its symptomology. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • Chronic tic disorder was either single or multiple, motor or phonic tics (but not both), which were present for more than a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • directed attenti
  • Directed attention fatigue (DAF) is a neuro-psychological phenomenon that results from overuse of the brain's inhibitory attention mechanisms, which handle incoming distractions while maintaining focus on a specific task. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] Directed attention fatigue occurs when a particular part of the brain's global inhibitory system is overworked due to the suppression of increasing numbers of stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The onset of directed attention fatigue can be triggered by a number of activities, all of which involve use of the brain's inhibitory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any illness or injury to the brain that interrupts the brain circuits involved in maintaining attention and inhibiting external stimuli may also contribute to the development of directed attention fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The precise genetic and environmental factors contributing to ADHD are relatively unknown, but endophenotypes offer a potential middle ground between genes and symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • tasks
  • To clarify this issue, future neuropsychological investigations are encouraged to employ tasks with significantly more trials and direct manipulations of bottom-up mechanisms with larger samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Often has trouble keeping attention on tasks or play activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although one's efforts may involve very different tasks, each incoming stimulus calls upon the same directed attention mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] Directed attention, or voluntary attention, requires a great deal of concentration and focus, and is employed in tasks such as problem solving. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies that require participants to carry out attention-demanding tasks under conditions of high distraction reveal how unpleasant a mentally fatigued person can be. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatigue that is experienced by participants of these kinds of studies is induced by attention-intensive tasks, and the observed effects of such fatigue are correlated with decline in inhibitory control. (wikipedia.org)