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  • influenza
  • (face.eu)
  • According to the World Health Organization and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, H5N1 pathogenicity is gradually continuing to rise in endemic areas, but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination, and so far there is "no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission" of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the high lethality and virulence of HPAI A(H5N1), its endemic presence, its increasingly large host reservoir, and its significant ongoing mutations, the H5N1 virus has recently been regarded to be the world's largest current pandemic threat, and billions of dollars are being spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza pandemics from its genetic offspring may include influenza A virus subtypes other than H5N1. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, symptoms may manifest and are often influenza-like: swollen lymph nodes, headaches, fever, and fatigue, or muscle aches and pains that last for a month or more. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • This recognition leads to the expression of cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules that eliminate pathogens like viruses for the activation of antigen presenting cells and for the activation of specific adaptive response [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • herds
  • In case of an outbreak among domestic pig herds, all pigs of the affected herd would have to be culled and safely disposed of. (bmel.de)
  • Started in 1999, the newly formed NC 229 Multistate Committee first addressed the topic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Disease Syndrome: Methods for the integrated control, prevention and elimination of PRRS in United States Swine Herds. (nimss.org)
  • bacteria
  • Compared to the usual viruses that we're familiar with, that's quite big, actually approaching the size of the smallest bacteria. (blogspot.com)
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cattle
  • The only reported case in 2010 was a false alarm from GIS Alex Baker, as proven false by the Florida Farm and Agricultural Department, and quarantine/slaughter of cattle and pigs was confirmed from Miyazaki Prefecture in Japan in June after three cows tested positive. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRRSV
  • Upon its most recent renewal in 2009, the NC-229 group expanded its goals beyond the topic of PRRSV to include other important swine emerging diseases. (nimss.org)
  • hosts
  • The virus encodes enzymes required for replication and transcription of its genome, including elements of a base excision repair system, structural proteins, and many proteins that are not essential for replication in cells, but instead have roles in virus survival and transmission in its hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses have coevolved with their hosts and thus have limited pathogenicity in any immunocompromised natural host. (intechopen.com)
  • During the period of coexistence with their hosts, viruses have learned how to manipulate host immune control mechanism. (intechopen.com)
  • infections
  • Farm veterinarians and farmers are both urgently requested to send in samples (particularly blood samples, but also other types of samples) to get diagnostic clarification on general fever infections, abortions or an increased number of fallen animals in pig holdings. (bmel.de)
  • It has also been documented that six hunters contracted Brucella suis infections from wild swine in Florida. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The social history of viruses describes the influence of viruses and viral infections on human history. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Evaluation of Viral Genome Copies Within Viral Factories on Different DNA Viruses. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • HcDNAV is a "giant virus" because it's giant, around 200 nm with a 356,000 nucleotide genome. (blogspot.com)
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although Group VII viruses such as hepatitis B contain a DNA genome, they are not considered DNA viruses according to the Baltimore classification, but rather reverse transcribing viruses because they replicate through an RNA intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The mutation rate of the protein-encoding sequences of strains isolated between 1932 and 2007 has been estimated to be 1.46 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year, a rate similar to that of other RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • plasma membrane
  • The majority of replication and assembly occurs in discrete, perinuclear regions of the cell called virus factories, and finally progeny virions are transported to the plasma membrane along microtubules where they bud out or are propelled away along actin projections to infect new cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • high fever
  • In the acute form of the disease caused by highly virulent strains, pigs may develop a high fever, but show no other noticeable symptoms for the first few days. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus causes a high fever for approximately two to six days, followed by blisters inside the mouth and on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is characterized by high fever that declines rapidly after two or three days, blisters inside the mouth that lead to excessive secretion of stringy or foamy saliva and to drooling, and blisters on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes
  • In contrast, the human herpes simplex virus 8 encodes different analogs of IRF with negative dominant activity, allowing it to interfere with the activity of cellular IRFs [ 11 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • The infected cell polypeptide 0 (ICP0) from Bovine herpes virus can interact with IRF3 and induce its proteasome-dependent degradation [ 12 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • replicate
  • Viruses are considered as extremely successful predators as they can replicate and control the host cell synthesizing machinery. (intechopen.com)
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • susceptible
  • In about 9000 BC, when many people began to settle on the fertile flood plains of the River Nile, the population became dense enough for the virus to maintain a constant presence because of the high concentration of susceptible people. (wikipedia.org)
  • natural
  • The viruses were later carried to the New World by Europeans during the time of the Spanish Conquests, but the indigenous people had no natural resistance to the viruses and millions of them died during epidemics. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • The Ordinance on the Protection against Swine Fever and African Swine Fever (Swine Fever Ordinance) sets the legal framework on controlling the disease. (bmel.de)
  • These free-living swine populations pose not only ecological concerns but infectious disease concerns as well. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The latter disease is now a reality faced by US swine producers, although it had been considered, until as recently as May 2013, just one more exotic disease to North America. (nimss.org)
  • The incubation period for foot-and-mouth disease virus has a range between one and 12 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • The global HPAI situation significantly improved in the first half of 2008, but the FAO reports that imperfect disease surveillance systems mean that occurrence of the virus remains underestimated and underreported. (wikipedia.org)
  • virions
  • In addition, the virus encodes proteins which inhibit apoptosis of infected cells to facilitate production of progeny virions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral membrane proteins with similarity to cellular adhesion proteins modulate interaction of virus-infected cells and extracellular virions with host components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • diagnostic
  • The NC229 committee was commended because (sic) it has been a model of multistate collaboration between institutions, working with stakeholders and providing leadership in partnering with private organizations such as swine breeding companies, diagnostic and vaccine companies and the National Pork Board. (nimss.org)
  • encodes
  • The virus encodes proteins that inhibit signalling pathways in infected macrophages and thus modulate transcriptional activation of immune response genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • Viruses can exist in two forms: extra cellular virion particles and intracellular genomes. (intechopen.com)
  • Viruses encode homologs of complement regulatory proteins that are secreted and block complement activation and neutralization of virus particles. (intechopen.com)
  • The cell is then forced to manufacture thousands of copies of the virus, and eventually bursts, releasing the new particles in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • When a complete virus particle ( virion ) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • immune
  • These processes are associated with the production of antigenic proteins that make the virus vulnerable to immune control mechanisms 'warning' the host of the presence of an invader [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • There are certain cellular components which are manipulated by viruses to evade the innate immune response. (intechopen.com)
  • unclear
  • Entry of the virus into the host cell is receptor-mediated, but the precise mechanism of endocytosis is presently unclear. (wikipedia.org)