• soil
  • Changes in the land surface energy balance are important because they affect the surface evapotranspiration, sensible and latent heat, soil temperature and moisture, and major land-atmosphere exchange processes that along with light availability are all important to the ecosystems. (hindawi.com)
  • Airborne lead-containing soil & dust at highways and fields along highways - see LEAD in AIR, EMISSIONS STANDARDS as well as lead-containing soils around buildings due to stripping of lead paint. (inspectapedia.com)
  • Wash children's hands and faces often to remove lead dusts and soil. (ewashtenaw.org)
  • Vacuum cleaners, which are used in homes as well as in industry, exist in a variety of sizes and models-small battery-powered hand-held devices, wheeled canister models for home use, domestic central vacuum cleaners, huge stationary industrial appliances that can handle several hundred litres of dust before being emptied, and self-propelled vacuum trucks for recovery of large spills or removal of contaminated soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mars portal Spaceflight portal Science portal Exploration of Mars Martian soil Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (planned atmospheric and dust experiment for the Mars 2020 rover) Notes Landis, G.A. (wikipedia.org)
  • aerosol
  • Here we address the impact of mineral aerosol (dust) that involves the radiative transfer processes, focusing on aerosol-induced changes in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 0.4−0.7 μ m) and surface radiative balance (SRB, 0.3−20 μ m). (hindawi.com)
  • 3 ] found that dust aerosol decreased the SW radiation by up to −137 Wm −2 (regional mean) in North Africa, resulting in a significant decrease in surface temperature and sensible heat. (hindawi.com)
  • 4 ] reported that dust caused a monthly mean SW surface forcing of −2.0 Wm −2 over East Asia, where the surface forcing was defined as the difference in SW fluxes between clean and aerosol-laden conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • 5 ] found that dust aerosol caused a daily-mean surface SW forcing of up to −41.9 Wm −2 over the Taklamakan desert. (hindawi.com)
  • Clear-sky short-wave (SW) and long-wave (LW) irradiance measurements at the surface were combined with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun/sky photometer aerosol products to study the desert dust impact on irradiance measurements at a Central Mediterranean site during the year 2012, by comparing measurements performed on dusty and dust-free days. (springer.com)
  • Daily mean values of both the aerosol Ångström exponent (Å), calculated from the aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 440 and 870 nm retrieved from AERONET sun/sky photometer measurements, and the desert dust loading (DL) from the Barcelona Supercomputing Center Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (BSC-DREAM8b) were used to select dusty days. (springer.com)
  • Antón M, Valenzuela A, Mateos D, Alados I, Foyo-Moreno I, Olmo FJ, Alados-Arboledas L (2014) Longwave aerosol radiative effects during an extreme desert dust event in southeastern Spain. (springer.com)
  • respirable
  • Controlling respirable silica dust at surface mines. (cdc.gov)
  • Overexposure to airborne respirable crystalline silica dust (referred to here as "silica dust") can cause silicosis, a serious and potentially fatal lung disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The percentage of Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) dust samples during 2004-2008 that exceeded the applicable or reduced respirable dust standard because of the presence of silica were: 12% for sand and gravel mines, 13% for stone mines, 18% for nonmetal mines, 21% for metal operations, and 11% for coal mines [MSHA (cdc.gov)
  • At surface mining operations, occupations most frequently exceeding the applicable respirable dust standard are usually operators of mechanized equipment such as drills, bulldozers, scrapers, front-end loaders, haul trucks, and crushers. (cdc.gov)
  • Visible airborne dust emissions generated from a particular surface mine process usually indicate that respirable silica dust can be present and potentially become a worker exposure problem. (cdc.gov)
  • The most widely used markers have been vapour-phase nicotine and respirable particulate matter (PM). Numerous other environmental analytes of SHS have been measured in the air including carbon monoxide, 3-ethenylpyridine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes and volatile organic compounds, as well as nicotine in dust and on surfaces. (bmj.com)
  • coal
  • Best practices for dust control in coal mining. (cdc.gov)
  • A voluntary surface coal miner lung screening study conducted in Pennsylvania in 1996 found that silicosis was directly related to age and years of drilling experience [CDC (cdc.gov)
  • Significant differences were found between the control and sample means for an Illinois bituminous coal mine dust, two western and one central Pennsylvania bituminous coal mine dust low-temperature ashes, and a clay mine and mill dust sample, but not for an anthracite coal mine dust and two central Pennsylvania bituminous coal mine dust low-temperature ashes. (cdc.gov)
  • accumulation
  • These findings were consistent with the decline in power output of the solar cells on Sojourner and the Pathfinder lander, which indicated a dust accumulation rate of 0.29% per day, and fairly close to the value predicted before Pathfinder landed (0.22% per day). (wikipedia.org)
  • silica
  • Surface mining operations present dynamic and highly variable silica dust sources. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of the dust generated at surface mines is produced by mobile earth-moving equipment such as drills, bulldozers, trucks, and front-end loaders excavating silica-bearing rock and minerals. (cdc.gov)
  • suck
  • Specialized shop vacuums can be used to suck up both dust and liquids. (wikipedia.org)
  • it was portable, easy to store, and powered by "any one person (such as the ordinary domestic servant)", who would have the task of compressing a bellows-like contraption to suck up dust through a removable, flexible pipe, to which a variety of shaped nozzles could be attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mars
  • InSight's objective is to place a stationary lander equipped with a seismometer and heat transfer probe on the surface of Mars to study the planet's early geological evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since knowing how the settling of dust out of Mars's atmosphere would affect solar cell performance would be critical to subsequent solar-powered missions on Mars, the MAE was included aboard the Sojourner rover to measure the degradation in performance of a solar cell as dust settled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurements taken by the MAE at local noon for the first 24 days of Pathfinder's operation on Mars showed that atmospheric dust obscured the test solar cell at a rate of 0.28% per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jenkins, P.P. (29 September - 3 October 1997), "Dust on Mars: Materials Adherence Experiment results from Mars Pathfinder", Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mars 2 and Mars 3 missions consisted of identical spacecraft, each with an orbiter and an attached lander, which became the first spacecraft to reach the surface of Mars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both landers had a small Mars 'rover' on board, which would move across the surface on skis while connected to the lander with a 15-meter umbilical. (wikipedia.org)
  • longwave
  • We investigated the extent to which Asian dust can affect vegetation in dryland ecosystems through altering photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and shortwave and longwave radiation components of the surface energy balance. (hindawi.com)
  • samples
  • Since these grains are direct samples from the moons' icy surfaces, determination of their composition will help to define and constrain the geological activities on and below the moons' surface, the exchange processes with the deeper interior, and assess its internal ocean habitability potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each home in Deloro, as well as the library, pump house and youth centre had swipe samples taken of interior surface dust. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurements
  • With these precise measurements, the composition of the gases will reveal the story of the interior, and whether the conditions for life exist beneath the icy surface of Europa," Waite explained. (phys.org)
  • Europa
  • SUrface Dust Mass Analyzer (SUDA) selected for Europa mission. (wikipedia.org)
  • SUDA: A Dust Mass Spectrometer for Compositional Surface Mapping for a Mission to Europa (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Quick Facts: Europa SUrface Dust Mass Analyzer (SUDA). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is an artist's concept of a plume of water vapor thought to be ejected off the frigid, icy surface of the Jovian moon Europa, located about 500 million miles (800 million kilometers) from the Sun. NASA has selected two Southwest Research Institute instruments for a Europa mission planned for the 2020s. (phys.org)
  • composition
  • Characterize the alteration of Europa's surface via exogenous dust impacts by measuring the composition, size, speed, and spatial distribution of dust in the vicinity of the moon. (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • In contrast to the reduction in SW radiation, dust significantly increases the LW radiation reaching the surface. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, dust-induced changes in both the SW and LW radiation should be accounted for in assessing the surface energy balance. (hindawi.com)
  • Through the use of Monte Carlo radiation transfer models to interpret the data, we find that the dust disk appears to have a vertical scale height similar to the stellar disk. (wisc.edu)
  • trail
  • Put the eggs and sugar into a large bowl and using an electric mixer, whisk together until the mixture is very pale and thick and the whisk leaves a trail on the surface when lifted. (pbs.org)
  • The trail is approximately 4.39 km long, and has a crusher dust surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Surface tension effects of cotton dust. (cdc.gov)
  • Throughout the mission, the glass cover plate was occasionally rotated away from the solar cell, removing the light-blocking effects of the dust. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • The SUrface Dust Analyser (SUDA) is a time-of-flight mass spectrometer of reflectron-type that employs impact ionization and is optimised for a high mass resolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface tension was plotted against surface area for four consecutive cycles until time equilibrium was attained. (cdc.gov)
  • Sometimes there's little time for dusting. (myotcstore.com)
  • However, after 20 seconds the instruments stopped working for unknown reasons, perhaps as a result of the massive surface dust storms raging at the time of landing. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Extraction of the dust with either water, chloroform, 70 percent acetone, or methanol lowered the hysteresis area relative to the unwashed dust. (cdc.gov)
  • Successive washing of cotton dust with chloroform, water, methanol, and 70 percent acetone completely eliminated the lecithin hysteresis. (cdc.gov)
  • pieces
  • Dust two small pieces of greaseproof paper with icing sugar and one by one, place the balls of fondant between the sheets of greaseproof and flatten each ball out with your fingers, to a thin circle, approximately 2cm/1in in diameter. (pbs.org)
  • contrast
  • This is in contrast to previous findings from HSB galaxies, where the dust is believed to be more concentrated in the galactic mid-plane. (wisc.edu)
  • impact
  • The impact of dust on the gross photosynthetic rate varies among different types of crops. (hindawi.com)
  • Area
  • The hysteresis of the lecithin film at minimum surface area decreased by approximately 50 percent in the presence of cotton dust. (cdc.gov)
  • often
  • Investigating possible causes of visual dust emissions when using an engineering control often can uncover the reason for its poor dust control effectiveness. (cdc.gov)
  • sections
  • All the information required by ISO 8502-3 is covered on the TQC Dust Test report forms featuring check-boxes and pre-defined sections, including space for 5 different test results. (stone-tucker.com)
  • Other sections have been cleared and had drainage work done, but still have a somewhat rough, unfinished surface that is not suitable for road bikes. (wikipedia.org)
  • properties
  • The authors conclude that surface active material on the cotton dust leached onto the lecithin films, affecting surface tension properties. (cdc.gov)
  • C4 plants such as corn tend to be less sensitive to the dust optical properties compared to C3 plants such as soybean and wheat. (hindawi.com)
  • regional model
  • Basart S, Pérez C, Nickovic S, Cuevas E, Baldasano JM (2012) Development and evaluation of the BSC-DREAM8b dust regional model over northern Africa, the Mediterranean and the middle east. (springer.com)
  • found
  • 5 ] found that about one-third of the SW surface cooling caused by Asian dust was compensated by its LW warming effect. (hindawi.com)
  • mission
  • As the mission progressed, atmospheric dust would settle on the glass cover plate, blocking increasingly more sunlight from striking the solar cell, causing it to produce less power. (wikipedia.org)
  • material
  • At the equator the stable layer of ice might lie under as much as 1 kilometer of material, but at higher latitudes the ice may be just a few centimeters below the surface. (wikipedia.org)