• species
  • Daniel Perez studies what causes the influenza A virus to catch and spread through avian hosts and how to prevent it from spreading to other species. (uga.edu)
  • Understanding surface-level protein interaction of the avian flu, the largest reservoir with the most viral diversity, is key to understanding how it jumps within its own species. (uga.edu)
  • Though the PDRC prioritizes understanding avian transmission to protect population health and develop alternative poultry vaccination strategies, the information is directly related to human and other species' susceptibility because influenza A has an avian reservoir, he said. (uga.edu)
  • The new work by USGS has nationwide importance because it offers a method for avian influenza surveillance programs to target their efforts for the right species and in the best locations. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the study, USGS scientists conducted the first-ever survey of avian influenza gene variation in a single host species -- the northern pintail -- at each end of the bird's migratory flyway in North America: Alaska and California. (bio-medicine.org)
  • If there is no evidence of transcontinental avian influenza virus gene exchange for a certain species or regional pathway, then those species and areas could be deemphasized in future surveillance programs. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Avian malaria is a parasitic disease of birds, caused by parasite species belonging to the genera Plasmodium and Hemoproteus (phylum Apicomplexa, class Haemosporidia, family Plasmoiidae). (wikipedia.org)
  • There exists a lot of controversy on what corresponds as a species in avian malaria parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also evidence that IBV can infect other avian species. (wikipedia.org)
  • H7N9 is a bird flu strain of the species Influenza virus A (avian influenza virus or bird flu virus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Experts have identified key events (creating new clades, infecting new species, spreading to new areas) marking the progression of an avian flu virus towards becoming pandemic, and many of those key events have occurred more rapidly than expected. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Type E strain is also commonly associated with avian outbreaks and is frequently found in fish species which is why most outbreaks occur in piscivorous birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • For example, the avian protein, in contrast with the mammalian protein, exhibited only minimal binding activity for asialoglycoproteins but interacted strongly with agalactoglycoproteins. (asbmb.org)
  • The pattern of accessory molecules expressed by avian T cells resembles mammalian α/β T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of avian reovirus to induce apoptosis is not restricted to a distinct cell type of virus strain due to the fact that several different isolates of this pathogen could induce apoptosis in different mammalian and avian cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • During viral maturation, the Gag polyprotein is cleaved by the retroviral protease into several corresponding structural proteins, yielding the matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins, and some smaller peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • H1N1
  • The new study found that the lysine amino acid resides in a completely different location on the protein and is responsible for the H1N1 virus' ability to adapt to and co-opt human cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • The new PLoS Pathogens report also includes critical data for the three-dimensional structure of the H1N1 protein known as PB2, which originated from an avian virus. (healthcanal.com)
  • According to Bart L. Staker of Emerald BioStructures, Inc., a member of the SSCGID, the structural data also reveals changes in the surface shape of the avian virus protein in H1N1, which could, in turn, be responsible for thwarting factors in the human cell that would otherwise inhibit infection. (healthcanal.com)
  • We also present the X-ray crystallographic structure of the C-terminus of a pandemic H1N1 virus PB2 protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We also speculate on the biological significance of the altered surface of the H1N1 PB2 protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • sialic acid
  • Together, Ashwell and Morell devised a labeling prodcedure that involved enzymatic removal of the glycoprotein's terminal sialic acid residue, thereby exposing galactose, which was then treated with galactose oxidase and tritiated borohydride, resulting in the incorporation of tritium into the protein. (asbmb.org)
  • Chicken
  • And, we don't immediately have an outbreak just because one chicken gets it, but the proteins dictate what a virus can and cannot do. (uga.edu)
  • 9. The transgenic avian of claim 1 , wherein the transgenic avian is a chicken or a quail. (google.com)
  • Most avian immunology research has been carried out on the domestic chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using monoclonal antibodies that are specific for chicken T cell surface antigens, the development of T cells in birds is studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cultivation and observation of the effects of avian reovirus is most often performed in chicken embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several primary chicken cell cultures/areas that are susceptible to avian reoviruses, which include the lungs, liver, kidney, and fibroblasts of the chick embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an experiment where primary cultures of chicken embryo fibroblasts were treated with alpha/beta interferon, results indicated that this interaction induced an antiviral state that strongly inhibited vaccinia and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication, but didn't have an effect on avian reovirus, specifically the replication of the S1133 strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Eurasian avian lineage involved three distinct lineages, including A/chicken/Beijing/1/94-like (BJ/94-like), A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97-like (G1-like), and A/duck/Hong Kong/Y439/97 (Y439-like). (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Ashwell's work on hepatic binding proteins has served as a stimulus for the identification of a host of carbohydrate-specific receptors on various cell surfaces and has inaugurated the current concept of a cellular lectin. (asbmb.org)
  • The subgroups evolved to utilize difference cellular receptors to gain entry into avian cells due to the host developing resistance to viral entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Type 1 fusion machines initially bind a receptor on the target cell surface, which triggers a conformational change, allowing for binding of the fusion protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein has no ligand binding domain of its own and therefore cannot bind growth factors. (genecards.org)
  • However, it does bind tightly to other ligand-bound EGF receptor family members to form a heterodimer, stabilizing ligand binding and enhancing kinase-mediated activation of downstream signalling pathways, such as those involving mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. (genecards.org)
  • However, Fos proteins do not dimerize with each other and therefore can only bind to DNA when bound with Jun. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • The avian immune system refers to the system of biological structures and cellular processes that protects birds from disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian malaria is most notably caused by Plasmodium relictum, a protist that infects birds in all parts of the world apart from Antarctica. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in areas where avian malaria is newly introduced, such as the islands of Hawaiʻi, it can be devastating to birds that have lost evolutionary resistance over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Companion birds in captivity are unlikely to contract the virus and there has been no report of a companion bird with avian influenza since 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most widely quoted date for the beginning of recorded history of avian influenza (initially known as fowl plague) was in 1878 when it was differentiated from other diseases that caused high mortality rates in birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most human cases of the avian flu are a result of either handling dead infected birds or from contact with infected fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • Typically, the presence of two amino acids - lysine and asparagines - in specific sites on a key avian protein are required for a flu virus to make the jump from an animal host and replicate efficiently in human cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • Gambotto and his colleagues constructed the vaccine by genetically engineering a common cold virus, called adenovirus, to express either all or parts of an avian influenza protein called hemagglutinin (HA) on its surface. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • Both of these started in Asia and, like the 1918 flu, contained a combination of human and avian influenza virus. (nbcnews.com)
  • Viral determinants of virulence and transmissibility are still poorly understood, although lysine at position 627 of the polymerase subunit PB2 (PB2-627K) is now known to be important for avian influenza virus adaptation to mammals , . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The tropism of the virus is determined by the SU protein domain because it is responsible for the receptor-binding function of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Env protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) also has a trimeric structure of heterodimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • His work focuses on interspecies transmission, specifically stemming from avian reservoirs, and how the pathogenesis of the virus affects said transmission. (uga.edu)
  • It was at Nebraska that he started focusing on the protein level of the virus. (uga.edu)
  • If you disrupt the protein interaction, he said, you can disrupt the virus replication. (uga.edu)
  • There are 10 proteins that are also involved in the composition of this virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, extracts of cells that were infected with avian-reovirus were able to block the activation of dsRNA-dependent enzymes, enabling the virus to relieve the translation-inhibitory activity of dsRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disregarding infectivity, the number of inoculated virus particles is the significant factor that leads to apoptosis from avian reovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, it is an enveloped virus with a condensed, central core, and has barely visible envelope spikes, or proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface glycoproteins contain the major domains that interact with the host cell receptor while the transmembrane (TM) glycoproteins anchor the surface glycoproteins to the virus membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gag-derived proteins govern the entire assembly and release of the virus particles, with matrix proteins playing key roles in Gag stability, capsid assembly, transport and budding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus which infects chickens, causing the associated disease, infectious bronchitis (IB). (wikipedia.org)
  • During infection, viral fusion proteins used by the virus to enter the cell are transported to the cell surface, where they can cause the host cell membrane to fuse with neighboring cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This same amino acid change (N66S) was also found in the PB1-F2 protein of the 1918 pandemic A/Brevig Mission/18 virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tree balance will be affected by selection, most notably immune escape (see figure 3) The effect of directional selection on the shape of a viral phylogeny is exemplified by contrasting the trees of influenza virus and HIV's surface proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ladder-like phylogeny of influenza virus A/H3N2's hemagglutinin protein bears the hallmarks of strong directional selection, driven by immune escape (caricatured by figure 3A). (wikipedia.org)
  • ASLV
  • Like many retroviruses, ASLV consists of a lipid envelope containing transmembrane and cell surface glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreak
  • The February 6, 2004 edition of Science magazine reported that two research teams, one led by Sir John Skehel, director of the National Institute for Medical Research in London, another by Professor Ian Wilson of The Scripps Research Institute in San Diego, had managed to synthesize the hemagglutinin protein responsible for the flu outbreak of 1918. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of avian botulism is extremely hard to detect before an outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • The surface glycoproteins for subgroups A-E are almost identical and include the conservation of all cysteine amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nature of the protective immune response to IBV is poorly understood, but the surface spike protein, the amino-terminal S1 half, is sufficient to induce good protective immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the amino acid sequence and the periodicity of the helices, the leucine side chains are arranged along one face of the α helix and form a hydrophobic surface that modulates dimerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from the "leucine zipper" and the "basic region" which are important for dimerization and DNA-binding, the c-jun protein contains three short regions, which consist of clusters of negatively charged amino acids in its N-terminal half that are important for transcriptional activation in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • alpha helical
  • This structural motif twists two alpha helical protein domains into a "coiled coil," characterized by a periodicity of 3.5 residues per turn and repetitive leucines appearing at every seventh position of the polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Research has shown that this core protein may possibly disrupt the IFN-induced cellular response against avian reovirus through the blockage of enzyme pathways that are dependent on dsRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • 13. The transgenic avian of claim 1 wherein the heterologous protein is an antibody is selected from the group consisting of IgG, IgA, IgD, IgM and IgE. (google.com)
  • glycoprotein
  • Exposed on the surface of the viral envelope, the glycoprotein gp120 binds to the CD4 receptor on any target cell that has such a receptor, particularly the helper T-cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Because of the high prevalence of these inactive forms, the immune system often produces antibodies which target inactive Env, rather than active forms of the envelope protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The avian immune system resembles that of mammals since both evolved from a common reptilian ancestor and have inherited many commonalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The avian immune system is divided into two types of immunity, the innate and adaptive ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The innate immune system includes physical and chemical barriers, blood proteins and phagocytic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, complement serum proteins, which are a part of the innate immune system, work with antibodies to lyse target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various bird organs function to differentiate avian immune cells: the thymus, Bursa of Fabricius and bone marrow are primary avian lymphoid organs whereas the spleen, mucosal associated lymphoid tissues (MALT), germinal centers, and diffuse lymphoid tissues are secondary lymphoid organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • If the candidate protein binds the labeled vesicles, addition of the linker drug results in a predictable, highly distinctive change in vesicle localization. (rupress.org)
  • Two-color fluorescence microscopy is often used to confirm that a candidate protein binds the relevant vesicle population in vivo , in the appropriate biological context. (rupress.org)
  • chickens
  • Almost all the B cell progenitors in the bursa of 4-day-old chickens express IgM on their cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a highly infectious avian pathogen which affects the respiratory tract, gut, kidney and reproductive systems of chickens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other respiratory diseases of chickens (Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian infectious laryngotracheitis (Gallid herpesvirus 1), Newcastle disease (avian paramyxovirus 1), avian metapneumovirus infection may be confused clinically to infectious bronchitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • pigs
  • Perez's latest publication shifted away from avian hosts and toward Argentinian pigs. (uga.edu)
  • Replication
  • Apoptosis can also be induced in cells that are infected with UV-irradiated reovirus virions and cells infected with ribavirin-treated avian reovirus, which suggests that viral mRNA synthesis and crucial steps that occur during viral replication are not necessary for induction of apoptosis in infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • It is believed that the intracellular transport of the nascent protein depends, to some extent, on the oligomerization of Env precursors, which allows hydrophobic sequences to be buried inside the protein structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • As of January 2014, there has been no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission, however a study group headed by one of the world's leading experts on avian flu reported that several instances of human-to-human infection are suspected. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell-surface
  • The expression of distinct transcription factors, growth factors and cell-surface antigens characterizes stages in the development of oligodendrocyte precursors. (biologists.org)
  • HA interacts with cell surface proteins containing oligosaccharides with terminal sialyl residues. (abcam.com)