• CTxB
  • GPI-GFP does not accumulate within endocytic compartments containing transferrin, although it is detected in intracellular structures which are endosomes by the criteria of accessibility to a fluid phase marker and to cholera and shiga toxin B subunits (CTxB and STxB, which are also found in rafts). (rupress.org)
  • proteins
  • Gram negative pathogens may secrete outer membrane vesicles containing lipopolysaccharide endotoxin and some virulence proteins in the bounding membrane along with some other toxins as intra-vesicular contents, thus adding a previously unforeseen dimension to the well-known eukaryote process of membrane vesicle trafficking, which is quite active at the host-pathogen interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • Some symptoms caused by this toxin are a decrease in platelet count in the blood or thrombocytopenia, an increase in white blood cell count or leukocytosis, and renal cell damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • endocytosis
  • After endocytosis, the A subnit is cleaved by furin in two fragments, A1 and A2: A1 is the catalytically active fragment, and A2 is essential for holotoxin assembly with the B subunits. (mybiosource.com)
  • After their B subunit binds to receptors on the cell surface, the toxin is enveloped by the cell and transported inside either through clathrin-dependent endocytosis or clathrin-independent endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • The discovery of the homology of cdtB to mammalian DNase I and the current AB model for the toxin were published in early 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic
  • The A subunit is then able to use its catalytic machinery to take over the host cell's regular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • These families are characterized by the sequence of their A subunit, as well as their catalytic ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • diarrhea
  • Some symptoms of this toxin include chronic and widespread watery diarrhea and dehydration that, in some cases, leads to death. (wikipedia.org)
  • HUS can be divided into two main categories: Shiga-toxin-associated HUS (STx-HUS), which normally presents with diarrhea, and atypical HUS. (wikipedia.org)
  • modulation
  • At low concentrations of toxin, more subtle effects such as modulation of host cell signal transduction may be observed in the absence of cell lysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • infant
  • Finally we demonstrate that the infant rabbit model may be used to test candidate therapeutics against Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage. (frontiersin.org)
  • While the p38 inhibitor SB203580 and the ZAK inhibitor DHP-2 were ineffective at preventing Shiga toxin-mediated damage to the colon, pretreatment of infant rabbits with the drug imatinib resulted in a decrease of Shiga toxin-mediated heterophil infiltration of the colon. (frontiersin.org)
  • specific
  • For this purpose an unspecific chemotherapeutical is conjungated to the B-subunit to make it specific. (wikipedia.org)
  • A specific target for the toxin appears to the vascular endothelium of the glomerulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These toxins trigger G2/M cell cycle arrest in specific mammalian cell lines, leading to the enlarged or distended cells for which these toxins are named. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • In 1997, the first paper of many to show G2/M cell cycle arrest caused by a cytolethal distending toxin was published in Molecular Microbiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • In response to the continued discovery of additional cytolethal distending toxins, a 2011 review has proposed that the toxin names be expanded to include the first three letters of the species (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • RNA N-glycosidase activity of the toxins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In the absence of arginine or simple guanidino compounds, the toxin mediated NAD+ nucleosidase (NADase) activity proceeds using water as a nucleophile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytolethal distending toxins (abbreviated CDTs) are a class of heterotrimeric toxins produced by certain gram-negative bacteria that display DNase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are the only AB-type toxins discovered that display DNase activity, allowing them to introduce breaks into the target cell's DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • C-jun has been shown to be essential for fibroblast proliferation, and levels of both AP-1 subunits have been shown to be expressed above basal levels during cell division. (wikipedia.org)