• halogen
  • The pathway and stoichiometry of halogenation depends on the structural features and functional groups of the organic substrate, as well as on the specific halogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In oxychlorination, the combination of hydrogen chloride and oxygen serves as the equivalent of chlorine, as illustrated by this route to dichloroethane: 2 HCl + CH2=CH2 + ​1⁄2 O2 → ClCH2CH2Cl + H2O The facility of halogenation is influenced by the halogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial stage of the halogenation of aromatic compounds differs from that of the halogenation of alkenes in that alkenes do not require a catalyst to enhance the electrophilicity of the halogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of alpha halogenation is the mono-bromination of acetone, carried out under either acidic or basic conditions, to give bromoacetone: Acidic (in acetic acid): Basic (in aqueous NaOH): In acidic solution, usually only one alpha hydrogen is replaced by a halogen, because each successive halogenation is slower than the first. (wikipedia.org)
  • The substitution of the aromatic diazo group with a halogen or pseudohalogen is initiated by a one-electron transfer mechanism catalyzed by copper(I) to form an aryl radical with loss of nitrogen gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium
  • Examples include: Ayapana triplinervis (92.8%) Apium leptophyllum (50.7 to 80.24%) Cyathocline purpurea (57.4%) Arnica montana (32.6%) Laggera crispata (32.2%) Blumea perrottetiana (30.0%) Eupatorium capillifolium (20.8%) Sphaeranthus indicus (18.2%) Limbarda crithmoides (16.4) Bubonium imbricatum (16.2%) 2,5-Dimethoxy-p-cymene can be synthesized from carvacrol by aromatic halogenation followed by nucleophilic substitution with sodium methoxide and Williamson ether synthesis using methyl iodide. (wikipedia.org)
  • involve
  • If there is steric crowding on the substrate near the leaving group, such as at a tertiary carbon center, the substitution will involve an SN1 rather than an SN2 mechanism, (an SN1 would also be more likely in this case because a sufficiently stable carbocation intermediary could be formed). (wikipedia.org)
  • addition
  • Hydrogenation: addition of H2 Halogenation: addition of X2 Hydration: addition of H2O Hydrohalogenation: addition of HX 26 5. (slidegur.com)
  • General addition reaction For hydrogenation, halogenation, hydration, and hydrohalogenation, identify the A and B portions of what is being added to the double bond. (slidegur.com)