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  • compounds
  • PAHs generally occur as complex mixtures (for example, as part of combustion products such as soot), not as single compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Although PAHs clearly are aromatic compounds, the degree of aromaticity can be different for each ring segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, bioanalytical testing of such soil using the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) assay, measuring the combined effect of all Ah receptor (AhR) activating compounds, occasionally indicates that the loss of PAHs does not correlate with the loss of Ah receptor-active compounds in the soil. (diva-portal.org)
  • soil
  • Degradation of the 16 US EPA priority PAHs in soil subjected to bioremediation is often achieved. (diva-portal.org)
  • The low mobility and high persistence means that they can stay in the soil for decades, and even at sites with contaminations dating at least 50 years back, 4- or 5-ringed PAHs are found near the soil surface. (eugris.info)
  • soot
  • Since Pott ( 7 ) first linked squamous cell carcinomas with exposure to soot among British chimney sweeps in 1775, PAHs have frequently been associated with human cancers of the skin, lungs, and bladder ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • human
  • This information is important because exposure to PAHs may cause harmful health effects and because these sites are potential or actual sources of human exposure to PAHs. (cdc.gov)
  • The dominant sources of PAHs in the environment are thus from human activity: Wood-burning and combustion of other biofuels such as dung or crop residues contribute more than half of annual global PAH emissions, particularly due to biofuel use in India and China. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure
  • Cadmium - Exposure to cadmium-containing substances can result initially in metal fume fever but can progress to chemical lung damage, pulmonary edema, and even death. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000) demonstrated that the effect of exposure to particulate matter on intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) may be at least partly explained by the presence of c-PAHs. (pdfdrugs.com)
  • 2000). This method was widely used to evaluate the impact of occupational exposure to carcinogens (Sram et al. (pdfdrugs.com)
  • sediment
  • Historical inputs of twenty-nine individual PCB congeners and twelve unsubstituted PAHs, as determined from an undisturbed Loch Ness sediment core, are presented in this paper. (lochnessproject.org)
  • found
  • PAHs have been found in at least 600 of the sites on the NPL. (cdc.gov)
  • As EPA evaluates more sites, the number of sites at which PAHs are found may increase. (cdc.gov)
  • PAHs are abundant in the universe, and have recently been found to have formed possibly as early as the first couple of billion years after the Big Bang, in association with formation of new stars and exoplanets. (wikipedia.org)
  • generally
  • Smaller molecules, such as benzene, are not PAHs, and PAHs are not generally considered to contain heteroatoms or carry substituents. (wikipedia.org)
  • environment
  • When a substance is released from a large area, such as an industrial plant, or from a container, such as a drum or bottle, it enters the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • 1.2 What happens to PAHs when they enter the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • PAHs enter the environment mostly as releases to air from volcanoes, forest fires, residential wood burning, and exhaust from automobiles and trucks. (cdc.gov)
  • In fact, our modern understanding of the relationship between cancer and the environment is largely conditioned by investigations involving exposures to PAHs ( 9 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Combustion/emission controls (1950s), and usage and production bans (1970s), have been nationally and internationally imposed in an attempt to reduce releases of PAHs and PCBs, respectively, to the natural environment. (lochnessproject.org)
  • known
  • However, the number of NPL sites evaluated for PAHs is not known. (cdc.gov)
  • health effects
  • It is one in a series of Public Health Statements about hazardous substances and their health effects. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are exposed to substances such as PAHs, many factors will determine whether harmful health effects will occur and what the type and severity of those health effects will be. (cdc.gov)
  • levels
  • However, the high initial levels of PAHs may be associated with reproductive effects observed in the offspring of women who were (or became) pregnant shortly after September 11, 2001. (pnas.org)
  • near
  • By using an assay developed for archived samples of fine particles, we measured nine PAHs in 243 samples collected at or near Ground Zero from September 23, 2001, to March 27, 2002. (pnas.org)
  • rings
  • PAHs with five or six-membered rings are most common. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In contrast, in anthracene the resonance structures have one sextet, which can be at any of the three rings, and the aromaticity spreads out more evenly across the whole molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • higher
  • Lower-temperature combustion, such as tobacco smoking or wood-burning, tends to generate low molecular weight PAHs, whereas high-temperature industrial processes typically generate PAHs with higher molecular weights. (wikipedia.org)
  • knowledge
  • Because no PAH-specific air sampling was conducted, this work provides the only systematic measurements, to our knowledge, of ambient PAHs after the WTC disaster. (pnas.org)