• addictive
  • The higher the frequency with which a test animal emits the operant behavior, the more rewarding (and addictive), the test substance is considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • As far back as the mid-20th century, researchers have investigated animals' drive to consume drugs of abuse in order to better understand human addictive processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with all GABAergic drugs barbiturate withdrawal produces potentially fatal effects such as seizures in a manner reminiscent of delirium tremens and benzodiazepine withdrawal although its more direct mechanism of GABA agonism makes barbiturate withdrawal more severe than that of alcohol or benzodiazepines (subsequently making it one of the most dangerous withdrawals of any known addictive substance). (wikipedia.org)
  • orally
  • In contrast to intravenous methotrexate for cancer patients, leukoencephalopathy induced by orally taken methotrexate may be associated with cognitive dysfunction and even death. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxins
  • Toxic leukoencephalopathy or toxic spongiform leukoencephalopathy is a rare condition that is characterized by progressive damage (-pathy) to white matter (-leuko-) in the brain (-encephalo-), particularly myelin, due to causes such as exposure to drugs of abuse, environmental toxins, or chemotherapeutic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Especially in the case of leukoencephalopathy developing due to substance abuse or environmental toxins, symptoms typically do not develop until several days to months after exposure to the pharmacological agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, toxic leukoencephalopathy induced by drug abuse or environmental toxins have had more damaging side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic
  • Symptoms vary widely between sources of toxicity, dosage, length of time patient was exposed to the toxic substance, patient history, and patient genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes of this damage are from iodine and phosphorus (and other toxic substances) that are present after synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The frequent occurrence of tissue damage and infection among illicit users are what gained the drug its nickname of the flesh-eating drug,or the zombie drug as homemade versions made under inadequate conditions contain multiple impurities and toxic substances that lead to severe tissue damage and subsequent infection as a direct consequence of use. (wikipedia.org)
  • drugs of ab
  • In 1969, Deneau, Yanagita and Seevers provided macaque monkeys free access to a variety of drugs of abuse for investigating whether nonhuman primates would voluntarily initiate self-administration of these substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequently
  • Most frequently, studies were performed in nonhuman primates to identify abuse potential, as required by the drug development process. (wikipedia.org)
  • physical
  • A.) Medically Dependent, with respect to an individual, has been certified by a physician attesting routine use of appropriate medical services including home intravenous drug therapy to prevent the individual's deterioration of physical health or cognitive function due to infection from the etiologic agent of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • Its intermediate duration of action gives butabarbital an abuse potential slightly lower than secobarbital. (wikipedia.org)
  • If animals self-administered at a rate significantly greater than vehicle, the drug was considered an active reinforcer with abuse potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health
  • This conceptualization moves away from the ill-defined binary antonyms of "use" vs. "abuse" (see diagram, lower right) towards a more nuanced, public health-based understanding of substance use. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, there are three distinct prohibitions on needle exchange programs at the federal level-the Ryan White CARE Act, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) authorization, and the 1997 Labor-Health and Human Services (HHS) Education appropriations legislation. (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • The manager of a Fiesta Mart supermarket in northwest Dallas explained his store's policy shift regarding various diphenhydramine-containing products by saying local youths were stealing these items, adding, "We didn't want to be part of the problem or anybody dying," implying that the store also pulled the products to curb abuse. (wikipedia.org)