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  • infarct
  • remote ischemic conditioning reduced infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients when used in the ambulance or emergency department as an adjunct therapy to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or when used with thrombolytic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • 10 11 We have developed the microdialysis technique for neurochemical monitoring in patients with severe acute brain injuries, including subarachnoid haemorrhage and trauma. (bmj.com)
  • decompressive
  • 11 12 Doerfler et al 11 showed in an experimental study in rats that decompressive craniectomy for cerebral infarction significantly reduced mortality and improved clinical outcome in a time-dependent fashion. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to directly compare the benefits of reperfusion with those of decompressive craniectomy and to study the effects of a combined treatment of reperfusion and craniectomy in an animal model of hemispheric infarction. (ahajournals.org)
  • oxygenation
  • Initial treatment consists of ensuring a reliable airway and maintaining adequate ventilation, oxygenation, and blood pressure. (merckmanuals.com)
  • This study explores whether CBF enhancement with HS in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with improved cerebral tissue oxygenation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusion- HS augments CBF in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage and significantly improves cerebral oxygenation for 4 hours postinfusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • occurs
  • Four types of cerebral edema have been identified: Vasogenic edema occurs due to a breakdown of the tight endothelial junctions that make up the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that membrane phospholipid degradation occurs in human cerebral ischaemia. (bmj.com)
  • subarachnoid
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space - the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathologies
  • 11,12 Other agents include rheological fluids such as hypertonic saline (HS), which has been shown to have similar effects to mannitol in various intracranial pathologies, but the duration of its action is longer. (ahajournals.org)
  • Further, most brain pathologies depend on many different factors and their physical manifestation may be conveniently ignored by focusing on genetics and cellular function as the primary driver. (springer.com)
  • cytotoxic
  • In cytotoxic edema, the blood-brain barrier remains intact but a disruption in cellular metabolism impairs functioning of the sodium and potassium pump in the glial cell membrane, leading to cellular retention of sodium and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is this swelling of the individual cells of the brain that is seen as the main distinguishing characteristic of cytotoxic edema, as opposed to vasogenic edema, wherein the influx of fluid is typically seen in the interstitial space rather than within the cells themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coagulopathy
  • Alcohol abuse predisposes to SDH through multiple mechanisms, including accelerated cerebral atrophy, comorbid coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia, and a propensity for falls or other accidents. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Experimental
  • Conclusions- Inhibition of arginine vasopressin V 1a receptors reduces the severity of SAH and prevents rebleedings by blunting the posthemorrhagic hypertonic response (Cushing reflex), thereby reducing mortality and secondary brain damage after experimental SAH. (ahajournals.org)
  • metabolism
  • These alterations may involve resting blood flow, brain metabolism, and spontaneous or evoked electrophysiological activity of the brain. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 Likewise, cerebral metabolism was found to be decreased in the contralateral hemisphere of patients for several weeks. (ahajournals.org)
  • Altered metabolism may cause brain cells to retain water, and dilution of the blood plasma may cause excess water to move into brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • Brain- none CSF- redistributed into compliant paraspinal CSF space Blood- venous blood forced into internal jugular veins When compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, ICP rises more rapidly Eventually, the compensatory mechanisms are exhausted and a sharp rise in ICP will occur. (slideplayer.com)
  • Recent findings have directly linked major brain development, mechanisms, and diseases to the mechanical response of the brain both at the cellular and tissue levels. (springer.com)
  • autoregulation
  • Furthermore, breakthroughs in the individualization of perfusion targets for patients with HIBI using cerebral autoregulation monitoring represent an attractive area of future work with therapeutic implications. (ubc.ca)
  • oxygen
  • A significant increase in brain tissue oxygen persisted for 240 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6,7 Brain tissue oxygen tension (P b O 2 ) reflects the availability of oxygen for oxidative energy production and represents the balance between oxygen supply and demand. (ahajournals.org)
  • seizures
  • Glycerol is an end product of membrane phospholipid degradation and has been used to study membrane phospholipid degradation in brain homogenates after cerebral ischaemia and seizures. (bmj.com)
  • SAH in a person known to have seizures is often diagnostic of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions
  • Conclusions Our results suggest that a neocortical infarction leads to hyperexcitability not only in its direct vicinity but also in the contralateral hemisphere. (ahajournals.org)
  • mechanism
  • Therefore, in the absence of a history of a traumatic mechanism, when SDH and IVT are seen together, this theory suggests that IVT is the cause of SDH rather than the effect. (ajnr.org)
  • blood
  • Cerebral edema from brain cancer Cancerous glial cells (glioma) of the brain can increase secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which weakens the junctions of the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combined treatment yields no additional benefit compared with single treatment, probably because of early blood-brain barrier breakdown. (ahajournals.org)
  • The femoral artery and vein were catheterized to monitor blood pressure and blood gases and to administer contrast agent. (ahajournals.org)
  • 16,17 A 20% to 50% increase in CBF in ischemic regions was seen without compromising blood flow to other areas. (ahajournals.org)
  • A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a collection of blood below the inner layer of the dura but external to the brain and arachnoid membrane (see the images below). (medscape.com)
  • The classical physiological actions of AVP are mediated by vascular V 1a receptors, which cause vasoconstriction with a subsequent increase in systemic blood pressure, and by renal V 2 receptors, which mediate reabsorption of water from the descending duct of the loop of Henle, thereby reducing diuresis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Medications such as labetalol may be required to lower the blood pressure until repair can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • consequence
  • A further consequence of this process is neurogenic pulmonary edema where a process of increased pressure within the pulmonary circulation causes leaking of fluid from the pulmonary capillaries into the air spaces, the alveoli, of the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • systemic
  • Besides these systemic actions, vasopressin has also been suggested to be involved in the control of ion and water homeostasis in the brain due to the presence of AVP receptors in the central nervous system. (ahajournals.org)